International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Frustration among University Students in Pakistan

Author Affiliations

  • 1Lahore Business School, The University of Lahore. PAKISTAN

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 7-15, December,14 (2012)


The focus of this paper is about identifying the reactions, feelings and causes of frustration among university students of Pakistan. Frustrating situations occur recurrently throughout the life. Nevertheless, it must not be allowed to achieve the upper hand. The sample of the study has comprised of 120 individuals including boys (n=78) and girls (n=42) from different universities of Lahore city. A questionnaire has designed as a data collection instrument which included close-ended questions. Reliability of Scale shows =0.855, so scale can be considered as trustworthy. Results are presented graphically, descriptively and inferentially. Chi-Square test has applied to verify demographics association with research questions. Results shows that greater academic demands from parents and losing or death of love ones are chief cause of frustration among students. Moreover, there are many feelings of frustration that had observed. Enduring depressed mood, crying spells, loss of interest or pleasure, decrease in aptitude level, feeling fatigue and feeling of anger or vengeance are dominant feelings among students during frustration. Furthermore, as a reaction to frustration mostly students face difficulty in making right decisions. Departing from friends and family has also examined in students as a reaction to frustration. Additionally, overall results about duration of frustration among university students have detected that most of the students face frustration for less than one month. The results of the study have been discussed in the light of particular Pakistani culture.


  1. Ripley G.D., Student health service at a college of further education, Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 22(116), 169-171 (1972)
  2. Ciaccio J., A teacher’s chance for immortality, Education Digest, 65(6), 44-48 (2000)
  3. Zhang J., Students Affordability of Setbacks in the Independent Colleges of the Western Region: Current Situation and Countermeasures, Journal of Guangxi Youth Leaders College(1), 26-29 (2008)
  4. Mandler G., Mind and Emotion, New York: Wiley (1975)
  5. Evans G.W. andWener R.E., Rail commuting duration and passenger stress,Health Psychology,25, 408-412 (2006)
  6. Hennessy D.A. and Wiesenthal D.L., Traffic congestion, driver stress, and driver aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25(6), 409-423 (1999)
  7. Dollard J., Doob L., Miller N., Mowrer O. and Sears Rn., Frustration and Aggression, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (1999)
  8. Miller N.E., The frustration-aggression hypothesis,Psychological Review,48, 337-342 (1941)
  9. Dill J.C. and Anderson C.A., Effects of frustration justification on hostile aggression, Aggressive Behavior, 21, 359–369 (1995)
  10. Verona E. and Curtin J.J., Gender differences in the negative affective priming of aggressive behavior, Emotion, 6(1), 115-124 (2006)
  11. Spacapan S. and Cohen S., Effects and aftereffects of stressor expectations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(6), 1243-1254(1983)
  12. Motowidlo S.J., Packard, J.S., and Manning M.R., Occupational Stress: Its Causes and Consequences for Job Performance, Journal of Applied Psychology71(4), 618-629 (1986)
  13. Zhang Q., An Exploration of Frustration Education for Adolescence and Counter measures, Ethnic Educ. Study17(5), 11-15 (2006)
  14. Costa P.T., and McCrae R.R., Bullish on personality psychology, The Psychologist(9), 302-303 (1993)
  15. Brackney B. and Karabenick S., Psychopathology and academic performance: The role of motivation and learning strategies, Journal of counseling Psychology. 42(4), 456-465 (1995)
  16. Kitzrow M. A., The mental health needs of today's college students: Challenges and recommendations, NASPA J, 41(1), 165-179 (2003)
  17. Sun Y.S., Frustration Tolerance of University Students and Countermeasures for Its Enhancement, Journal of Southwest Agricultural University (Social Sciences Edition), 6(4), 200-203 (2008)
  18. Dai L.J., Fresh Students Endurance on Frustration and Solution, Journal of Harbin University, 30(3), 142-144 (2009)
  19. Halford W.K., Markman H.J., Stanley S., and Kline G., Best practice in relationship education, Journal of marital and family therapy, 2(3), 385-406 (2003)
  20. Graig E., Stress as the consequence of the urban physical environment, In L. Goldberger and S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2ndEd.) New York: Free Press (1993)
  21. Lewandowski C.A., Organizational factors contributing to worker frustration, The precursor to burnout, Journal to Sociology and Social Welfare, 30(4), 175-185 (2003)
  22. Harrington N., It’s too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination, Personality and Individual Differences,39(5), 873-883 (2005)
  23. Mahon N.E., Yarcheski A., Yarcheski T.J., and Hanks M.M., Relations of low frustration tolerance beliefs with stress, depression, and anxiety in young adolescents, Psychological Reports, 100(1), 98–100 (2007)
  24. Blair R.J.R., Psychopathy, frustration, and reactive aggression: the role of ventromedial prefrontal cortex, British Journal of Psychology, 101(3), 383–399 (2010)
  25. Deater-Deckard K., Beekman C., Wang Z., et al., Approach/positive anticipation, frustration/anger, and overt aggression in childhood, Journal of Personality, 78(3), 991–1010 (2010)
  26. Sharma N.R., Sunita Yadava A. andYadava N., Level of general depression among schedule caste/scheduled tribe and non scheduled caste/scheduled tribe students,Indian psychological review, 52(2), 64-68 (1999)
  27. Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., and Peake, P., Predicting adolescent cognitive and self-regulatory competencies from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions, Developmental Psychology, 26, 978-986 (1990)
  28. Campell J.S., Law and Order Reconsidered: Report of Task Force on law Enforcement to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, New York: Banton Book (1970)
  29. Shirotriya A.K. and Basumatary B., Occupational Stress and Frustration Tolerance of Indian Security Forces, Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, 41(2), 214-218 (2010)
  30. Kapoor A., Burleson W. and Picard R.W., Automatic prediction of frustration, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65, 724-736 (2007)
  31. Mc Quiggan S. W., Lee S. and Lester J.C., Early prediction of student frustration, In A. Paiva, R. Prada, and R. W. Picard (Eds.), Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, 698-709 (2007)