International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Discriminant Analysis of the Influence of Farmer's Socio-Economic Characteristics on their Participation in Research and Extension Activities in Borno State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Agricultural Extension Services, University of Maiduguri, NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Abuja, NIGERIA

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 1-6, December,14 (2012)


This article describes and applies the discriminant analysis model in this study to evaluate the influence of farmers’ socio-economic characteristics on their level of participation in Participatory Research and Extension Approach (PREA) activities in Borno State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 605 respondents selected through multistage and proportionate sampling procedures. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The dicriminant function coefficients (b) revealed positive contribution for the variables: age (b=0.292), education (b=0.257), marital status (b=0.232), land ownership status (b=0.232) and contact point with extension agent (b=0.729). However, negative coefficients were obtained for the variables: gender (b= -0.170), agricultural production motive (b= -0.241), land tenure system (b= -0.193), farming experience (b= -0.273) and farm size (b = -0.117). Based on low values of the Wilks’ Lambda (w), high coefficients for F-ratio (F) and relatively large absolute canonical correlation coefficients (s) the result revealed that ‘contact point with the extension agent’ (w=0.960; F=102.766; s=0.751) ‘land ownership status’ (w=0.972; F=71.566; s=0.631) and years of farming experience (w=0.897; F=31.366; s=0.396) are the highest discriminating variables and make significant contribution as discriminators between the different levels of participation in PREA. The study recommended the need to attune PREA to the socio-economic and cultural milieu of Borno State and improve on the level of farmers’ education, ensure steady access to extension services and more equitable land tenure arrangement.


  1. Madukwe M.C., Multivariate Analysis for Agricultural Extension Research. In Oluwo, T.A.(ed). Research Methods in Agricultural Extension, Publication of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria, 206-236 (2004)
  2. Ellis-Jones J., PROSABs’ Experiences with PREA and Discussion points for the Future, Paper Presented at a Workshop for Policy Makers in Borno State, Borno State Hotel, Maiduguri, 5th,April (2006)
  3. Mutsaers H.J.W., Weber J.K., Walker P. and Fisher N.M., A Field Guide for On-Farm Experimentation, IITA/CTA/ISNAR. 220-223 (1997)
  4. Awh R.Y. and Water, D.A., Discriminant Analysis of Economic, Demographic and Attitudinal Characteristics of Bank Charge- Card holders: A Case Study, The Jon. of Fin., 29(3), 973-980 (1974)
  5. Gwary, M. M.,Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Participatory Research and Extension Approach in Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Borno State, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis,Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria (2008)
  6. National Population Census, National Population Census Results, National Population Commission, Abuja, Nigeria (2006)
  7. Agboola T., The participation of the Rural Poor in Rural Development: A Theoretical Construct, Jon. of Econ. and Soc. Stud., 30(2), 167-176 (1988)
  8. Osuntogun C.A., A Statistical Study of some Determinants of Membership Participation in Western Nigeria Rural Credit Cooperatives, Bulletin of Rural Econ. and Soc.9.1:1974/75, 15-22 (1975)
  9. Croxton S. and Murvira, K., Participatory Technology Development and Dissemination. A Case Study from Chivi, Zimbabwe. Paper prepared for NRI/ODA Forum: Participatory Technology Development, Aberdane Country Club, Kenya, 14-17 April, 1997, Chatham, U.K. National Resources Institute. Development: Is participation in post-modern concept? London, ODI ,Working paper, 119 (1997)
  10. Rach T.D., Na S.I. and Paulson C.E., Variables Associated with Adoption and Non-adoption of Pesticides by Plantain Farmers in the Dominican Republic. Proceedings of the 11thAnnual Conference of Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education, Washington, D.C. 24-28th March (1993)
  11. Doppler W., Farming and Rural Systems Approaches, Published Lecturing Material. Hohenhei (2002)