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The Role of Endowments in the Scientific Prosperity of Maqdis in Ayyubid Age

Author Affiliations

  • 1 History Department, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, Giza, EGYPT

Int. Res. J. Social Sci., Volume 1, Issue (1), Pages 39-48, September,14 (2012)


The endowments of the students of science are one of the aspects of piety. According to the jurists, it is an equivalent to jihad for the sake of God. The endowments or El-Ahbas were considered one of the most important aspects of charity. Also, they were considered by many jurists as a continuous charity to obtain its owner reward. The profits of endowments became the primary resource for expenditure on the scientific institutions, from the Sheikh of school to the servants. So, sons of Ayyub were interested in endowments. The expenditure on the scientific institutions was achieved by endowment authority according to the conditions stipulated by the endower in his document. In an accurate reading of the texts of these documents, we find that the endower determines the way of spending and how much is spent on all employees in this scientific institution as well as precise determining for the endowed places. As a result of the availability of funds from the proceeds of these endowments, these schools played its scientific role, where they accepted many delegations of scientists, scholars and students from the different countries of the Islamic world. In this way, the scientific prosperity has increased in Jerusalem in the Ayyubid age, because of these endowments, which have been endowed to various scientific centers. Thus, the endowments were the main source of spending on these scientific centers in Maqdis, and what necessary to meet their different needs. The returns of these funds were spent on the employees in the school, where the salaries were paid to the employers in the schools. Some funds were allocated to spend on the restoration of these schools and reform what was destroyed. Besides, some returns were spent on providing the libraries in those school with the necessary books, papers, and ink pens. Also, buying the necessary rugs, carpets, mats, lamps, oil, etc to these schools.


  1. Sultan Nur El-Din Mahmoud is the son of the Sultan Imad El-Din bin Ak-sanqr El-Hajeb, was born in 511AH/ 1117 AD, The Ruler of Aleppo after the death of his father, Imad El-Din in 541 AH/ 1146 AD, then he Could unify the Kingdom of his father, Mosul and Aleppo, and Combine the most of Levant countries, Aljezera and Egypt, and his property has expended to include Mosul, Diyr-Bakr, Aljezera, the Levant and Yemen, and sermon to him in two Holy Mosques of Mecca and Medina. He has been described in history that he was just, following of the good ancestors, and he loved science and scientists, died in 569 AH/ 1173 AD. See: Ibn El-Atheer: El-Kamel fi El-Tarikh, Beirut ,v.11, 402 (1966, Abu Shama: raudatain fi akbar El-Dawaltain, BeirutVI, 229, ( n. d)
  2. El-Mawiz Weliettbar Bezikr Alkhetat Wellathar, Bulaq 1,V2, 362 (1270)
  3. El- Imad El-Isfahani: El-Fath El-Qusi Fi El-Fath El-Qudsi, Cairo, 141(2003); Ibn El-Atheer: El-Kamil Fi El-Tarikh, XI, 551-552, Sibt Ben El-Jauzi: Miraat El-Zaman Fi Tarich El-Aian, Hyderabad, VI, 397 (1951)
  4. Ibn-Wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurub Fi Akbar Bani Ayyub, Cairo V.2, 229 (1957)
  5. Ibn Abidin: Red El-Mukhtar Ala El-Durr El-Mukhtar, Boulak, 3, 387, El-Ghazali: Ehiaa Oloum El-Din, 5 (1323)
  6. Ibn Hajar El-Asklani: Fath El-Barii Fi Sharh Sahih El-Bukhari, Egypt, 246(1319) AH El-Ahbas: they are endowments, and the term derived as Jurists have permitted "Habs the place and benefaction with its income", thus defined the endowment as a: "Habs the place not be dispelled by sale or mortgage, gift, is not transmitted by inheritance. The benefit or revenue be spent on the places of charity according to the terms of endowment. See: Ibn hajar El-asklani: Fath El-Barii, 5, 246; see also: Mohamed Mohamed Amin: Endowments and social life in Egypt, Cairo 22(1980)
  7. Ibn Mamatii: Quanin El-Dawawin, Cairo, 356(1991)
  8. Lumaa El-Quawanin El-Mudiyaa Fi Dawawin El-Diyar El-Misriyya, Cairo , 26(N. d)
  9. el-Nabulsi: Lumaa El-Qawawin, 26; see also: Mohamed Mohamed Amin: Endowments and Social life in Egypt, 56.
  10. See the written text at the entrance to the Badriyah School in Maqdis, Abdul-Jail Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, Jordon , 1, 359 (1981)
  11. Ibn Khallikan: WaFiat El-Aian Waanbai Abnaa El-Zaman, Beirut , 7, 84-100; (1978) Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Uns El-Galil bi Tarikh El-qudis well Khalel, 2, 102 ( N. d)
  12. Ibn-Wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurub, V4, 219.
  13. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-uns El-Galil, 2, 144, see also: Abdul-Jalil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: schools in Jerusalem, 1, 183. It should be noted that Saladin had no money of his own, and did not have the properties to buy this school, or endow from its endowments, so he ordered the agent of the House of money (Biet El-Mall) to dispose of purchasing it from House of money, and asserts that when Saladin died , there was not found in his own treasury except "forty seven silver dirhams, and one gold dinar, and did not leave property , house , garden , farm , ceiling or visible thing, not taking advantage any type of property". See: Abu Shama: er-raudhatain fi akbbar El-Dawaltain, 2, 217.
  14. Ahmed Ben Ibrahim El-Hanbali mentioned that, the number of scientists who had accompanied Saladin as he entered Jerusalem "were approximately ten thousand men". See: Shifaa El-Klou Fi Manakeb Bani Ayyub, Iraq, 129 (1978)
  15. Imad El-Isfahni: El-Fath El-Qussi, 145, Ibn Wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurub, 2, 230, Hanbali: Shifaa El-Kloup, 178. Abu El-Feda mentioned that Muslims have established a school in this place, and following the seizure of the crusaders to Jerusalem in 492 AH/ 1099 AD it turned into a church, and then returned Saladin a school. See: El-Moukhtaser Fi Akbar El-Bashar, 3, 83. The Door of Assbatt: this door is attributed to Assbatt of Bani Israel. See: Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbli: El-Uns El-Galil, 2, 28.
  16. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbli: El-Uns El-Galil, 2, 144.
  17. Mufarij El-Kurub, 2, 230.
  18. Wafiat El-Aian, 207.
  19. Noueiri: Nihaiat El-Arab Fi Fonoun El-Adab, Cairo, 28, 437 (1992)
  20. Runciman: History of the crusades, Beirut , 138-141, (1968) Stevenson: The Cusaders in the East, Cambridge,(1968)
  21. El-Mokhtaser Fi Akbar El-Basher, Press Husseini in Cairo, , 83, (n. d)
  22. Baha El-Din ibn Shaddad is Yusuf Ben Rafi Ben Tamim Bin OttBa Ben Mohammed Ben Attab El-Asadi, born in Mosul in the Tenth of Ramadan in 539 AH/ 15 February in 1145 AD, was educated in Mosul, where he studied by the number of its scientists, and then later turned to Baghdad following the complete qualification, where he joined with El-Nizamia School as a demonstrator , and stayed in this school as a demonstrator for four years, until the year 566 AH/ 1170 AD, then he went to Mosul in 569 AH/ where he worked as a teacher at the school of Justice Kamal El-Din El-Shahrzari, and in 583 AH , he made the pilgrimage to Biet Allah El-Haram, following performing pilgrimage, he wanted to visit Jerusalem and El-Khalil (Hebron), then he went first to Damscus, Sultan Saladin was in Damascus in this time, he heard of him, and when the fame of Ben shaddad preceded him to Damascus, so Saladin wanted to meet him, called him, and Greatly honored him, and asked him to hear a part of Hadith, Ibn Shaddad did so, which led to Saladin\92s admiring with his knowledge and wisdom, so following Ibn Shaddad left Saladin, Saladin sent Imad El-Din El-Katib to follow him, and telling him that the Sultan wants to meet him at the end of his visit to Jerusalem. Ibn Shaddad already returned, then Saladin made him in his service at the beginning of the month of jumada Awwal 584 AH/ 28 june 1138 AD, where Saladin appointed him as a governor of Kaddaa El-Asker and ruling of Jerusalem, and since that date Ibn Shaddad has become "one of the best friends to Saladin " and a accompanied him until the death of Saladin. See: Ibn khallikan: Wafiat El-Aian, 7, 84-88, Ibn Wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurrub, 5, 89.
  23. Ziel er-raudatian, 163.
  24. Wafiat El-Aian, 7, 87.
  25. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbabi: El-Uns El-Gallil, 102.
  26. El-Dawii Allami Fi Aian El-Karn El-Tasii, Beirut., 8, 151-154, (n. d)
  27. About the sciences that studied in this school. See: Abdul-Jallil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, I, 189-195.
  28. Ibn Aybak El-Dwadarii: El-Durr El-Mattlube Fi Akhbar Bani Ayyub, Cairo, 117 (1972)
  29. Muhammad Kurd Ali: Khittat El-Shamm, Damascus, 6, 123 (1928)
  30. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Uns El-Galil, 2, 41
  31. Rashad El-Imam: The City of Jerusalem in the Middle Ages, Tunisia, 106 (1976)
  32. Mogeer El-Din El- Hanbali: El-Uns El-Galil, 34.El-Khotnee attributed to Khuttn, one of Turkish countries. See: El- Maqrizi: El-Mukafii El-Kapeer, Beirut, 7, 92(1991)
  33. Bimarstan, a Persian word composed of two syllables: the word Pimar means patient and stan means place, then the word means place of patients, or patients house see: Ahmed Issa: the History of El-Bimarstanat in Islam, Damascus, 4 (1939)
  34. Nihaiat El-Arab, 28, 437.
  35. Ahmed Issa: El-Bimarstant in Islam, 231-232.
  36. El-Khanqah: the plural of Khanqah or Khankah, a Persian word means house, and it said that it was originally Khounqah i.e., the place in which the king eats; since the fifth century AH the word means houses of Sufism. See: El-Maqrizi: El-Mwaiz Weliettbar Bizikr El-Khettat Wellathar, 413.
  37. It was known that were seized by the crusaders in Jerusalem, and these places had been recovered by Saladin from their hands, and Saladin bought some of these places as he did in the church "Sind Hannah". See: Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Galil, 144.
  38. See text of the document in the record number 95 of the records of the shariaa count (Mahkma El-Shariaa) in Jerusalem, 424-428, See: Kamel Osaily: Historical Documents of Jerusalem, Amman, 1, 81-104 (1983)
  39. Sheikh Ghanem was born in village of Burin, one of countries of Nablus in 562 AH/ 1166 AD, and lived in Palestine, where he resided in Jerusalem since its restoration by Saladin from the hands of crusades in 583 AH/ 1187 AD. He was described by El-Zahbii in his saying: "He was an ascetic worshiper submissive for God". See: El-Zahbi; Tarikh El-Islam and Wafiat El- Mashaheer and Alaalam, Beirut, 13, 527(2005)
  40. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbli: Auns El-Galil, 146.
  41. Mogeer El- Din El-Hanbli: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 196. Sheikh Ghanem died in Damascus in Rajab in 632 AH.
  42. El-Shaarani: El-Anwar El-Qudsia Fi Bian Adab El-oubdia, Egypt, 12 (1317 AH)
  43. Abul Ghani Mahmoud Abdu Aaty: Education in Egypt, During the Age of Ayyubids and Mamlukes, Cairo, 238-239(1984)
  44. See what mentioned by Dr. Abdullatif Ibrahim in his study " Mamlukia Library ", Cairo, 27 (1962)
  45. El- Murtada El-Zubaidi: Taruihh El-Quloo Fi Zikr Bani Ayyub, Damascus, 89 (1971)
  46. Miraat El-Zaman: 2, 637, Ziel Miraat El-Zaman, 145.
  47. Ibn Khallikan: Wafiat El-Aian, 8, 419.
  48. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Galil, V2, 46.
  49. El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 46.
  50. It was known that the Maliki Doctrine Widespread in Maghreb and moved with them to the Levant, so, the Maliki Magrabii had a major role, especially in the Afdallia school and in Jerusalem in a general. See: Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Galil, 243-256.
  51. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbli: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 244-245.
  52. King El-Addel, following his stability in Government, divided his property among his sons, El-Zuhbi says: " following the countries had paved to him, he divided the countries among his sons", See: Tarikh El-Islam, 13, 133-134, and the share of his son Muazam Issa Damascus and its countries, and Jerusalem was sticked to Damascus. See: Ibn wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurrub, 4, 208-212.
  53. Sibt Ben El-Jawzi: Mirrat El-Zaman, 2, 644-645.
  54. Wafiat El-Aian, 2, 494, See also, Ibn Wasil: Mufarrij El-Kurub, 4, 211.
  55. Ibn Khallikan: Wafiat El-Aian, 3, 495, El-Qalqashandi: Subh El-Asha, 1, 468-470.
  56. Sheikh Taj El-Din El-Kendi who Zayd Ibn-Al-Hassan Ibn Zayd Ibn El-Hassan Ibn-Zayd Ibn El-Hassan tripartite, Ibn Said Ibn Issma Ibn Khier Ibn El-Harith Ibn El-Asghar Taj El-Din Abu El-Ymen El-Kendi, was born in Baghdad in year 520 AH, and died in Damascus in year 613 AH. see: El-Naiemi: El-Daris, 1, 485-486.
  57. Miraat El-Zaman, 577, see also: Abu-Shama: Ziel Er-raudatien, 97-98, El-Naimi: El-Daris, 486
  58. One of his most famous books, El-Sahm El-Musseb Fi El-Radd Ala El-Khatib", in it responds to criticisim of El-Khatib El-Baghdadi Ali Abu Hanifa. Ibn Wasil mentioned that he read" this book in Jerusalem, and completely read it, and I found it very good". see: Mufarrij El-Kurub, 4, 211-212
  59. Mogeer El-Din Hanbli: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 270
  60. Ibn Wasil: Mufarij El-Kurub, 4, 212, see also: Muhammad Kurd Ali: Khittat El-Sham, 6, 119, Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 351.
  61. Massalik El-Abssar Fi Mamalik El-Amsar, Abu Dhabi , 1, 139, (2008)
  62. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 352.
  63. Aloumary: Massalik El-Abssar, 139-140.
  64. Mogeer El-Din: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 270.
  65. El-oumary: Massalik El-Abssar, 1, 139-140.
  66. El-Sakhaawi: El-Dawii Allami Fi Aian El-Karn El-Tasii, XI, 65, 206, Almohebby: Khulasett El-Athar Fi Aian El-Karn El-Hadi Ashar, Beirut , 4, 427 (n. d), see also: Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 354-355.
  67. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, I,361.
  68. Ibn wasil mentioned that the king El-Adell, the father of El-Muazam Issa talked with him about his embracing of the Hanfi Doctrine, and blamed him, by saying to him: "How did you embrace the Hanifi Doctrine, and all your family embracing Shafii, he said to his father for foreplay: "Hey Khound, are you happy because there is a Muslim in your family". see: Mufarij El-Kurub, 4, 211.
  69. El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 42, see also: Muhammad Kurd Ali: Khittat El-Sham, 6, 123.
  70. following the Mamluk\92s extension for their influence in the Levant, the king El-Qahir Bahaa El-Din Abdul Malik took side with El-Zahir Baybars, and Continued in his residency in Damascus until his death early the year 676 AH/ 1277 AD, and El-Zahbi mentioned that he died by poison on the hand of Sultan El-Zahir Baybars, see: Tarikh El-Islam, 19, 125-126.
  71. El-Zahbi: Tarikh El-Islam, 14, 442.
  72. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 218.
  73. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbli: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 219.
  74. King El-Amjad Hassan was King Muazam Issa\92s brother, He died in the life of his father, King El-Addell, and was buried in Jerusalem. see: Ibn El-Furaat: His Tarikh, Baghdad, 233 (1970)
  75. Ibn Wasil: Mufarij El-Kurub, 3, 274
  76. Ibn Wasil: Mufarij El-Kurub, 211.
  77. Mufarij El-Kurub, 212.
  78. Who is the King Shihab El-Din Ghazi Ben the Al Addell King Ayubid. Owner of Miafarqin and Khallat, and mansour\92s fort, He died in 645 AH/ 1247 AD. see: Ibn Khalikan: Wafiat El-Aian, 5, 333, Sibt Ibn El-Jawzi: Miraat El-Zaman, 2, 768-770, El-Zahbi: Tarikh El-Islam, 13, 834, Ibn Wasil: Mufarij El-Kurub, 3, 274.
  79. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Gallil, 2, 47
  80. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 1, 397
  81. El-Zahby: Tarikh El-Islam, 13, 356.
  82. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Gallil, 2, 47. St. Helana worked at the beginning of her work in one of the Petheinae bars, then became an illegal wife to costantinos who fathered her, his son, Constantine, When Constantinos became Caeser for Gala at the time of Diocletian who asked him to divorce her and marry theodara's daughter of wife maximan, and Helena at that period had converted to Christianity, following her son Constantine occupying the throne of the Roman Empire in 323 AD, and he embraced Christian religion within the Empire, and his determination following that in 325 AD to establish a church above the Tomb of Christ in Maqdis, Helena traveled by the order of her son to Jerusalem, where supervised the demolition of the structure of the temple Avrodety, which was built in that place, and was replaced by building the church of resurrection, and also she established another small church in Biet-Lahm in the place that witnessed the birth of Jesus Christ. see: well Durant: the story of civilization, Cairo, 12, 382-401(2001), Raafat Abdul-Hamid: Church and State, Cairo, 117-118(1982), Cambridge Medieval History, I, 15-22, Rostovtzeff: History of the ancient world, 2, 317. Hospitalleres: Teams of monks appeared in the late twelve century AD in the Levant. Templars and Titoun were the famous teams of the Haspitallers. The aims of these teams were charitable and humanitarian, to protect and treat the Christian poor pilgrims, Then the matter developed and its role became political and military. Hospitalleres became an important part in the crusader army in the Levant at the time of the crusades. see: King: The Knights Haspitalleres in the Holy land, London; (1931), Nabila Ibrahim Maqami: Knights teams monks in the Levant, Master of Arts Cairo University, 2-14(1975)
  83. Mogeer El-Din El-Hanbali: El-Auns El-Galil, 2, 48
  84. Khazindar: A compound word of two syllables, the first is Arab syllable that means Khazin, the man who stores and dispenses grain, the second syllable, Dar is Persian that means constipated, so the person who took care of the treasury with its funds and yields, see: El-Qalqashandi; subh El-Ashaa, 5, 462-463.
  85. Ibn El-Athir El-Kamel Fi El-Tarikh, 12, 109-145, Ibn Wasil: Mufarij El-Kurub, 3, 14-38.
  86. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul-Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, , 340-342.
  87. Izz El-Din Aybak El-Muazami, is owned by King Muazam Issa, and took the job of Istadar El-Muazam, a person who was supervising the affairs of the house of Sultan, he has the right to absolute disposal in every needs of house alike expenses and clothes, and supervises the kitchen and the place of drinking (Sharab Khanah) ,the retinue and the boys, then El-Muazam Issa gave him Sarkhadd following its seizuring it in the year 644 AH/ 1246 AD, and Izz El-Din Aybak continued in Sarkhadd, Following the death of El-Muazam, he worked in the service of his son Nasser Dawood, and Sarkhad continued in his hands, until it was taken from him by King Salih Najm El-Din Ayyub Ben King El-Kamil in 644 AH/ 1246 AD. Izz El-Din Aybak was captured and drove to Cairo, where he was arrested. Ibn Wasil: Mufarij Al Kurub, 4, 224.
  88. El-Naimi: El-Daris Fi Tarikh El-Madaris, I, 557.
  89. El-Naimi: El-Daris Fi Tarikh El-Mudaris, 1, 557-558, see also: Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, I, 396
  90. Abu Shama: Ziel er-raudatian, 108
  91. El-Zahby: Tarikh El-Islam, 13, 111.
  92. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 359.
  93. Abu Shama: Ziel Er-raudatian, 108.
  94. Ibn Kathir: El-Bedia Wel-Nahaia, Beirut, 13, 78 (1985)
  95. The intermediary dictionary, Cairo, 1, 359.
  96. Abdul Jalil Hassan Abdul Mahdi: Schools in Jerusalem, 1, 399. The King El-Auhad Died in 4 Ze El-Hega in 698 AH/ 1298 AD, and was buried in Rabatt in the north Mosque Jerusalem, with the age of seventy years. see: El-Zahbi: Tarikh El-Islam 14, 883, Ibn Taghrii Bardii. ElNaujaum El-Zahra, Cairo, 8, 189( n. d),, Ibn El-Imad El-Hanbali: Shzratt El-Zahab Fi Akhbar men Zahab, Beirut, 5, 443 (N. d)
  97. To take care of Jerusalem and Khalil (Hebron) or the consideration of the two Holy Mosques, from his duties to consider what needs to Haram El-Sharief in Jerusalem, Hebron, he spent on the reformations and paid the Salaries of its employees, as well as , the disposition of the of its endowments. see: Ibn Hajar El-Askalani: Enbaa El-Ghoumer, Cairo, 1, 158, see also: Rushad El-Imam: the city of Jerusalem in the Middle Ages, 104-105.
  98. Tarikh El-Islam, 14, 883.
  99. Abdullatif Ibrahim: Mamluki Library, Cairo, 80( 1962)
  100. In many times, the documents provided for that, see: Abdullatif Ibrahim: Mamluki Library, 80-81, and margins.