International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Nigerian Clay as a Catalyst for Esterification of Propan-1-OL with Propanoic Acid

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna ,NIGERIA
  • 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, UNITED KINGDOM
  • 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, NIGERIA

Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 2, Issue (2), Pages 7-10, February,26 (2013)


The esterification of propan-1-ol with propanoic acid using Nigerian clays as catalysts was carried out in a batch reactor. Catalysts samples were produced from thermally activated clays obtained from Suleja and Shabu, Nigeria respectively. The effect of mole ratio and catalyst concentration on the conversion was studied. The thermally activated Suleja clay gave a highest conversion of 59 % at catalyst concentration (3%) and mole ratio (acid: alcohol) of 1:2, at a reaction temperature of 70°C, While thermally activated Shabu gave the highest conversion of 55% at same process variable conditions. The increase in alcohol to acid mole ratios resulted to decrease in percentage conversion. While increase in catalyst concentration led to increase in percentage conversion.


  1. Nagendrappa G., Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts, Clays for ‘Green Chemistry’ General Article: Resonance,64-77 (2002)
  2. Guggenheim S. and Martin R. T., Definition of clay and clay mineral: Journal report of the AIPEA nomenclature and CMS nomenclature committees, Clays and Clay Minerals43(1), 255–256 (1995)
  3. Konwar D., Gogoi P.K., Gogoi P., Borah, G., Buruah R., Hazarika N. and Borgohain L., Esterification of carboxylic acids by acid activated Kaolinite Clay, Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 15(2), 75-78 (2007)
  4. Wilson K. and Clark J. H., Solid Acids and Their Use as Environmentally Friendly Catalysts in Organic Synthesis. Green Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK. Pure Appl. Chem., 72(7), 1313–1319 (2000)
  5. Sheldon R. A., Chemistry and Industry,1(12), (1997)
  6. Ababio O. Y., New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools. FEP International Private Limited, Singapore, 500-508 (1990)
  7. Mark G., Organic Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, London, 156-206 (2002)
  8. Missen R. W., Mims C. A. and Saville B. A., Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering and Kinetics, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, USA. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 176-197 (1999)
  9. Igbokwe P. K., Ugonabo V. I., Iwegbu N. A., Akachukwu P. C. and Olisa C. J., Kinetics of the Catalytic Esterification of Propanol with Ethanoic acid Using Catalysts Obtained from Nigerian Clays, Journal of The University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 43(3), 345-348 (2008)
  10. Connors K. A., ChemicalKinetics: The Study of Reaction Rates in Solution. VCH, New York, (1990)
  11. Moore J. W. and Pearson R. G., Kinetics and Mechanism, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, (1981)
  12. Falconer J. F., Kinetics and Reaction Engineering.CRC Press LLC, 10-12 (1990)
  13. Saha B., Alqahtani,A. and Teo,H.T.R., Production of iso-amylate Acetate:Heteregenous Kinetics and Techno-Feasibility Evaluation for Catalytic Distillation, International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 3(30), (2005)
  14. Lee M. J.,Chiu J.Y. and Lin,H.M.,Kinetics of Catalytic Esterification of Propanoic Acid and n-Butanol OverAmberlyst, 35, Ind.Eng.Chem.Res.,41,2882-2887(2002)