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Assessment of togolese rivers sands potential as filter sand for drinking water plants

Author Affiliations

  • 1Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School, University of Lome, 01 BP 1515, Lome, Togo
  • 2Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School, University of Lome, 01 BP 1515, Lome, Togo
  • 3Laboratory of Research in Engineering Sciences, Engineers High National School, University of Lome, 01 BP 1515, Lome, Togo

Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 10, Issue (1), Pages 20-30, January,26 (2021)


In this work, the physical properties of river sands, commonly used in construction in Togo, were studied in order to assess their potential as filter sand for drinking water plants. Samples from 17 sites throughout the five Togolese administrative regions are subjected to the tests of sieve analysis, density, porosity, mass loss at acid and friability. Results analysis reveals that sands absolute density, bulk density and porosity are generally suitable to the standard specifications. 88% of the samples show good acid solubility; 71% have very good friability and 29% have good or poor friability. The size distribution properties of these samples, evaluated by the effective size (D10) and the uniformity coefficient (Cu), do not allow them to be used, in their natural state, as rapid filtration sand without tailoring to the desired size. For an effective size of 1 mm and a uniformity coefficient of 1,5 for example, the usable proportions of theses natural sands vary from 6% to 28%. For the same uniformity coefficient and an effective size of 0,6 mm, the usable proportions are more important and vary from 10% to 56%.


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