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Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 4, Issue (11), Pages 1-90, November (2015)


Research Paper

1. Assessment of Changing Trends of Shifting Cultivation in Garo Hills Landscape of Meghalaya-A Geo-Spatial Approach
Sarma P.K., Al Huda E., Baruah B., Mipun B.S. and Talukdar B.K., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),1-7(2015)

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The North-Eastern part of India is rich in forest resources. But the forest resources are declining rapidly from the last two decades. The shifting cultivation is an important traditional agricultural practisein Garo hills of Meghalaya. Garo people are mainly dependent on forest resources for their livelihood. Due to forest based dependency of livelihood pattern, it has created environmental degradation like soil erosion, loss of forest resources, threatens of flora and fauna in this area. In 1999, the area of abandoned and current category of shifting cultivation was calculated 19.84 sq. km and 64.18 sq. km respectively. On the other hand, it was increased to 48.75 sq. km and 140.73 sq. km in 2009. The abandoned shifting cultivation area was calculated 43.02 sq. km and current 158.76 sq. km in 2013 for Garo hill district of Meghalaya. It is important to note that, more than 70% of shifting cultivation area was concentrated in the moderate and moderately steep slope for all the years of study period. It is proved that the trend of shifting cultivation pattern can easily be accessed through the Geo-spatial tools.
2. Impact of Environmental Change on the distribution of Floral Biodiversity of Khunjerab Nation Park and Central Karakorum National Park District Hunza-Nagar Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan
Haider Sujjad, Ali Shaukat, Akbar Muahmmad, Begum Farida, Raza Ghulam, Ibrahim Nasiba, Syed Hussain Arif, Hussain Nasir and Ali Ehsan, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),8-11(2015)

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The significance of this study is the presence of two national parks in the study area; the Khunjerab National Park (KNP) which is wholly present in the study area, and the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) which has roughly 40% of its area in the study area. Both the KNP and part of CKNP in the study area are located in the Alpine and Subalpine zones, though KNP has a greater altitude. Floristically both showed striking differences in spite of belonging to similar ecological zones and situated not far away from each other. Although both had Compositae as the largest family, in KNP its number of species (38) was disproportionately higher than all other families. On the other hand, in the CKNP, the distribution of species in the larger families and genera was comparatively more even. Except the first largest, the other large families were different in both the Parks, and both had totally different sets of the largest genera. The overall species richness was greater in CKNP (200 spp.) than the KNP (160 spp); One reason for the floristic difference between both of these parks may be the availability of moisture and environmental conditions.
3. Effect of Exposure of Male Albino Rats to Kerosene, Diesel and Petrol on Kidney Function
Uhegbu Friday O., Imo Chinedu and Ifeanacho Nkeiruka Glory, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),12-18(2015)

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The effect of exposure of male albino rats to inhalation of Kerosene, Diesel, Petrol and a mixture of kerosene, diesel and petrol on kidney function was examined in this research. Creatinine, serum urea and serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) increased in all groups exposed to the petroleum products compared with the control. Creatinine and serum urea increased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups exposed to the petroleum products. Creatinine increased highest in the rats exposed to kerosene (from 0.73 ± 0.11 to 1.50 ± 0.19 mg/dl), while serum urea increased highest in the group exposed to petrol (from 27.20 ± 2.05 to 52.80 ± 3.49 mg/dl). Sodium increased significantly (p<0.05) only in the group exposed to kerosene (from 124.80 ± 11.88 to 165.20 ± 14.17 mEq/L), but increased non-significantly (p<0.05) in all other groups exposed to the petroleum products compared with the control. Potassium increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the groups exposed to the petroleum products. Potassium increased highest in the rats exposed to petrol (from 3.70 ± 0.03 to 6.15 ± 0.34 mEq/L). Chloride increased significantly (p<0.05) in the rats exposed to kerosene and petrol, but increased non-significantly in the rats exposed to diesel and mixture of kerosene, diesel and petrol. Chloride increased highest in the rats exposed to kerosene (from 36.63 ± 3.68 to 44.13 ± 1.66 mEq/L). Histological analysis of kidney section from rat in group one (control) show essentially normal histoarchitecture of the kidney tissue, but exposure of the animals to inhalation of kerosene, diesel and petrol show necrosis, distorted glomeruli and Bowman’s capsule of the kidney tissue when compared with the control. The results of this study show that exposure of the male albino rats to inhalation of kerosene, diesel and petrol can cause alterations in kidney function parameters and distortion in normal histoarchitecture of the kidney tissue. This means that exposure to inhalation of kerosene, diesel and petrol can cause kidney damage.
4. Physiological and biochemical responses induced by Nickel to Arachis hypogea L.
Arzoo Atia and Satapathy Kunja Bihari, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),19-24(2015)

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An experiment was conducted in groundnut [Arachis hypogea L.] to find out the effect of nickel on germination, growth and biochemical parameters. The seeds of groundnut were germinated in six different concentrations of Nickel chloride solution having 0-100 mg/l of nickel. It was observed that seedling vigour index, metal tolerance indices were reduced and the percentage of phytotoxicity were increased. The pot culture experiment revealed that, the growth parameters and the percentage of moisture content of in plant were decreased with increase in concentration of nickel and in contradiction, seedlings showed better result in terms of growth in 40ppm of nickel at 10th, 20thand 30thdays thereby indicating that Nickel within 40mg/kg had stimulating effect on the seedling growth. Similarly the total chlorophyll content, total soluble protein content were decreased but free proline content was increased with increase in concentration of nickel at 10th , 20th ,30th and 100th days after treatment. So, it could be concluded that Nickel at lower concentration had an inducing effect on plant growth and inhibited the same at higher concentrations.
5. Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous solution using Mangrove fern Acrostichum aureum L. leaf Biomass as a Sorbent
Lobo Soniya M. and Gulimane Krishnakumar, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),25-31(2015)

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Investigation was carried out to analyze the biosorption behavior of the Mangrove fern (Acrostichum aureum L.) leaf biomass, for the removal of heavy metals from the aqueous solution. The uptake for Cu (II), Pb (II) and Zn (II) were 46.86 ± 0.54, 47.21± 0.65 and 47.81± 0.43 mg g-1 respectively when 500 mg L-1 of the metal solution was used. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium adsorption isotherms were studied and data obtained from equilibrium experiment are found well fitting with the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Kinetic studies indicated that biosorption of heavy metal by the mangrove fern followed well the pseudo second order. The presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups in the biomass and their role in metal ion adsorption process was confirmed by FTIR studies. By this study plentifully accessible a new biosorbent for the exclusion of heavy metals from the polluted water was identified.
6. Diversity of Water birds in Koothapar Periyakulam Wetland in Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India
Teneson R. and Ravichandran C., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),32-41(2015)

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The present study was undertaken to study the diversity of waterbirds in Koothapar Periyakulam wetland during August 2013 to July 2014. Fourty three species of water birds were observed in the wetland which belong to 7 orders and 14 families. Five thousand six hundred and seventy one individual numbers of waterbirds and 33 species were recorded during December 2013. Water birds belong to the order: Peliconiformes, Charadriiformes, Anseriform, Gruiformes and of the families: Ardeidae, Anatidae, Rallidae, Scolopacidae, Threskiornithidae were recorded with high number of species in the wetland. “Threatened” and “near threatened” species were also recorded. This study reveals that Koothapar Periyakulam wetland acts as a refuge site for many waterbirds including wader, waterfowl and many migratory and threatened species. Hence, it is recommended that protection of the wetland from the human disturbance is of urgent need.
7. Effects of Industrial Agglomeration on Land-Use Patterns and Surface Water Quality in Konabari, BSCIC area at Gazipur, Bangladesh
Fazal S.A., Bhuiyan M.A.H., Chowdhury M.A.I. and Kabir M.M., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),42-49(2015)

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Readymade garments sector of Bangladesh is playing a vital role in country’s economic growth for last decade but not without an intangible cost of deteriorating the environment, biological resources and self-sufficiency in agricultural sector. Industrial activity causes one of the major environmental pollution problems in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of industrial agglomeration on local land-use patterns and surface water quality of Turag River and its peripheral wetlands adjacent to Konabari, BSCIC area at Gazipur district, Bangladesh. To determine the land-use patterns, image processing and digitization were carried out using the Arc GIS 10 software. The Google images were obtained from open source ‘‘Google Earth’’ software. Statistical analysis was carried out in order to process and analyze the data. The water quality parameters (pH, DO, TDS and COD) were measured by using digital calibrated instruments and the BOD value was measured by standard 5 day BOD test method as described by APHA. The accretion of industrial development was found approximately four times in the year of 2010 compared with the year of 2004. The order of increasing patterns of land-use was industries > brick fields. The decreasing patterns of land-use were water bodies >Turag River > croplands > vegetation cover during the period of 2004 to 2010. Among different land-use types, the highest percentage of grabbed area by industries was croplands (49.44%; 356 acres) and the lowest percentage of grabbed area was water body (0.14%; 1 acres). The industrial agglomeration also grabbed 103 acres (14.31%) vegetation cover of the study area. The order of completely diminished land-use patterns of the area was, water body (44.29%) > croplands (31.90%) > vegetation (13.80%) >Turag river (11.10%). The values of pH, DO, BOD, COD, and TDS ranged from of 6.25 to 9.65, 0.55 to 2.98 mg/L, 65-142 mg/L, 192-445 mg/L and 1155-2085 mg/L respectively. Except pH, all the water quality parameters exceeded the prescribed limits set by local authority which indicates that the water of Turag River and its peripheral wetlands has been polluted severely and it should not be used in any purpose regarding human and animal life without proper treatment.
8. Evaluation of trace metal concentrations in Water, Sediment, Edible crab and Prawn from Fishing harbor of Tuticorin
V. Ramesh S. Pandiammal and Senthilkumaar P., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),50-53(2015)

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A study was conducted to determine the level of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in seawater, sea sediment, edible crab (Portunus sanguinolentus) and edible prawn (Penaeus merguiensis) collected from Tuticorin fish landing center (Thirespuram), south India during premonsoon and monsoon 2014. These metal concentrations were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) in order to assess the influence of trace metals in prawn/ crab with nexus on seawater and sediment samples. In prawn, the accumulated mean metal concentrations such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ne Pb and Zn were 0.25, 0.12, 0.48, 2.91, 0.52, 0.16 and 0.82 mg l-1 (premonsoon) while in the monsoon season, mean Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ne Pb and Zn concentrations were 0.34, 0.11, 0.60, 3.25, 0.14, 0.11 and 1.15 mg kg-1 respectively. In this study, the level of all metal concentrations were high in monsoon season than premonsoon season, except Cr, Ni and Pb. In the crab at premonsoon, the mean metal concentrations such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ne Pb and Zn were 0.28, 0.20, 0.51, 3.45, 0.12, 0.22, and 1.52 mg l-1 while in the monsoon season, mean Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ne Pb and Zn concentrations were 0.31, 0.21, 0.56, 4.12, 0.15, 0.14 and 1.35 mg kg-1 respectively. The metal accumulation in the living things were higher (2-10 folds) than the water samples. The higher trace metal was present in the sediment samples than the other groups and its decreased orders were: Sediment > Crab > Prawn > Water. Based on the results, metal concentrations in the edible crabs and prawns were not in the permissible levels for human consumption. The values of heavy metals in coastal waters were more than TNPCB prescribed level.
9. Effect of change in pH on Rate of Respiration and Survival of the Fiddler Crab, Uca (Celuca) Lactea Annulipes (milne- edwards, 1837) in different Seasons, Thane Creek, Navi Mumbai, India
Mangale Vilas Y. and Kulkarni Balasaheb G., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),54-57(2015)

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The present study was undertaken to study the effect change in the pH of the medium on survival of fiddler crab Uca (Celuca) lacteal annulipes from Thane creek, Navi Mumbai. Marked fluctuation in pH under different seasons occurs in study are due to various reasons such as industrial effluent runoff and sewage disposals etc. Fiddler crabs are exposed to significant fluctuation in pH change because their habitat is intertidal zone of costal and estuarine marine water. To overcome this stress effect their rate of respiration increases in exited state and tolerance levels decreased in extreme pH change. The wider pH tolerance present in these animals might be useful for combating the adverse condition arising due to sudden release of effluent of higher pH in their environment.
10. Screening and Isolation of Polyethylene degrading Bacteria from various sources
Botre S., Jadhav P., Saraf L., Rau K. and Wagle A., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),58-61(2015)

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Plastics are the most commonly used polymers for routine applications. The accumulation of plastics is a threat to environment as it causes pollution, creating an imbalance in the ecosystem, thus proving to be hazardous. The ways to degrade plastic have not been successful. At the same time natural degradation of plastics is too time consuming. The most eco-friendly approach to resolve this ever growing and persistent issue is the microbial degradation route. The main objective of the present study is to isolate and screen for bacteria having the capability to degrade low density polyethylene (LDPE) which is a major cause of environmental pollution. The bacteria were isolated from various sources after serial dilution on M9 medium incorporated with LDPE. The selected isolates were comparatively screened by an Agar cup method to find strong LDPE degraders. These isolates were further tested for the extent of degradation using a film degradation assay. Total 20 cultures were obtained during the primary screening as probable LDPE degraders. In the agar cup method, 7 high LDPE degraders were selected. The percentage degradation was found out using the film degradation assay and the two most promising isolates were obtained from sewage and marine sources. These isolates were identified using biochemical methods as belonging to the Genus Staphylococcus.
11. Influence of Environmental Parameters on the Aquatic Entomofauna Assemblages of Singanullur Lake, Coimbatore, India
Susheela P and Radha R., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),62-67(2015)

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The aquatic insects are an important component of biodiversity and are very important indicators of water quality parameters. The distribution and composition of insect communities are considered to be determined by the environmental factors and interactive relationship within the ecosystem. The present investigation was to determine the effects of environmental factors on the aquatic insect assembly in Singanullur lake,Coimbatore .Three different sampling stations were selected and were examined for the water quality and aquatic insect assemblages. A total of aquatic insects were collected from the lake with the highest number of aquatic insects from the order Hemiptera. The water analysis results revealed that Station I- had the best water quality when compared to the other sites. Thus environmental variables were found to influence the aquatic insect distribution in the lake.

Research Article

12. Tidal Flood and Rain Water Logging Around the Hugli Estuary and Its Impact on Khejuri-Hijili Sector of Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Pradhan Mihir Kumar, Paul Ashis Kumar, Chatterjee Soumendu and Barman Nilay Kanti, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),68-74(2015)

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Khejuri police station is located at the lower Bengal Basin near the Hugli river mouth under Midnapore (east). It is considered as a littoral tract region having monsoon climatic character. Naturally this area is known for its agricultural potential. Rice, Betel leaves, Lemons and various types of vegetables like potato, Brinzal, Chilli, Sugarcane stick etc. are the main crops produced which are sent to local and national markets which is important in the context of national trade. The present paper seeks to analyze the problems of land degradation due to recurring water logging that has been instrumental in losing the earlier glory of the area as an agriculturally potential tract.

Review Paper

13. A Differential Study on Microbial and Molecular Effects in Plant Grown in the Vicinity of Petroleum Contaminated Soils
Sufyan Husham Al Samman, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),75-82(2015)

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The proposed paper is an exploration of microbial and sub-atomic impacts of petroleum contaminants on wheat plants developed in petroleum defiled soils. With fast improvement of industry, vehicles, and planes, the interest for petroleum is progressively extended. Then again, a lot of petroleum was impregnated to soil amid the investigation, translocation, and handling, and it brought about critical ecological contamination. Commonplace medications for petroleum-defiled soil include in uncovering the dirt and evacuating it for treatment utilizing physical or substance routines. The most widely recognized and essential indications saw in the plants debased with oil and its results, corruption of chlorophyll, adjustments in the stomatal instrument, lessening in photosynthesis and breath, increment in the generation of anxiety related , gathering of poisonous substances or their side effects in vegetal tissue, diminish in size and less creation of biomass. Soils which are presented to petroleum pollution has been concentrated altogether keeping in mind the end goal to figure out their influence on different parameters of plant development, for example, seed germination, leaf region, biomass, chlorophyll substance and stature of the plant. relative study is performed in this undertaking taking characteristic soils and in addition vermicompost to figure out the accurate results vermicompost soil has indicated more elevated amounts of the considerable number of parameters while petroleum soil readings are low than ordinary soil readings.
14. Arsenic Pollution Scenario in Eastern UP, India: A Review
Pandey Namrata, Lehri Alok, Sonali Mehrotra and Srivastava J.B., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),83-86(2015)

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In recent decades, arsenic pollution is being reported from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh State after than West Bengal and Bangladesh. There has been wide spread of arsenic contaminated soil in India, of which the eastern district of Uttar Pradesh (UP) is least focused. Very recently it is reported that the 20 districts of UP are severely in toxic zone of arsenic contamination (above 0.05mg/L), where arsenic presence has been found to be more than five times of permissible limit. The districts (Ballia, Ghazipur and Varanasi) of Uttar-Pradesh were found to contain arsenic concentration exceeds from 10 mg L-1 which is a WHO recommended provisional guideline value of arsenic in drinking water. Humans, plants and animals from these villages are exposed to the grave danger of Arsenic poisoning as this problem is largely unrecognized and unaware. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detailed study and mitigation endeavor from arsenic pollution. This paper intends to give an overview of the arsenic contamination in eastern U.P. and the research work carried till date.
15. Toxicity Tests to Check Water Quality
Dagar Gunjan and Bagchi Gargi, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(11),87-90(2015)

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Water is essential for all biological life. The health and well-being of humans and other organisms of ecosystem depend heavily on the quality of water. Quality of water refers to the physiochemical, and biological characteristics of water. Quality of water often deteriorates due to the presence of hazardous substances such as industrial chemicals, consumer products and pharmaceuticals. The quality of water and the presence of hazardous contaminants can be assessed by toxicity testing. In recent years toxicity testing has grown steadily, as a useful tool in environmental risk assessment. The most commonly used toxicity tests include direct toxicity assessment, water quality index, in-vitro and in-vivo bioassays. Biological tools like Bioassays, Biomarkers, and Biosensors provide us with a detection system for signaling a potential damage in the environment. Although these toxicity tests provide important information about contaminants concentration and consequent toxicity, yet the specific biological functions altered are often not apparent. New test systems need to be developed that provide information about not only the overall toxicity induced but also the specific biological pathway that are disrupted due to the contaminants.