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Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 3, Issue (10), Pages 1-98, October (2014)


Research Paper

1. Effect of Organophosphate Pesticide, Nuvan on Serum Biochemical Parameters of Fresh Water Catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch.)
Shaikh Irshad ahmad and Gautam R.K., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),1-6(2014)

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In the present study, effects of various concentrations of Nuvan (2, 2 dichlorovinyl dimethylphosphate) exposures on days 7, 15, 30 and 60 for many serum biochemical parameters in the freshwater teleost fish, Heteropneustes fossilis, were photometrically investigated. The 96h LC50 value of Nuvan was estimated by using log-dose probit regression line method. On the basis of LC50 value, the sub-lethal concentrations were determined as 0.26 mg/L, 0.32 mg/L and 0.43 mg/L which are 1/25, 1/20 and 1/15 of LC50 respectively. Well acclimated fishes from both control and treated group were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and blood samples were collected. Various biochemical parameters such as Serum total Protein, Serum Albumin, Serum Creatinine, Serum Bilrubin and Serum Urea has been studied as diagnostic tools. In general significant effects (p<0.05) from different concentrations and time of exposure were observed in exposed fishes. It was found that significant alterations in all the biochemical parameters were dose dependant as well as duration dependent. Results indicated that serum total protein and Serum Albumin decreased significantly where as Serum Creatinine, Bilurubin and Serum Urea increased with increase in Nuvan concentration and time of exposure when compared with control groups.
2. Study of Water Quality Index with the help of Remote Sensing and GIS for Ground Water Sources between Ganga and Yamuna River Siwalik region in Doon Valley in Outer Himalaya
Singh Devendra, Panwar Anju, Kainthola Ashutosh and Bartwal Sapana, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),7-11(2014)

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Ground water is a natural resource shared by both individual and industry. In the Uttarakhand state, much of residential rural water use comes from domestic ground-water wells, streams and small rivers. The chemical nature of natural water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The total dissolved solids; hardness Eh pH etc in water often indicates frequent local fluctuations in the water-table. In the Uttarakhand state, much of residential rural water use comes from domestic ground-water wells, streams and small rivers. The present study carried out for the sources between Ganga and Yamuna River of Siwalik region in Doon Valley in Outer Himalaya.The objective of the present study to evaluatewater quality index (WQI) with the help of Remote Sensing and GIS. To carry out the investigation, water samples from different locations were collected and analyzed. The water quality index (WQI) for the water was computed which based testes conducted for their pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese, total dissolved solids ( TDS) and total hardness content. The WQI values for the tested samples from the study area ranged between 50 to450. The WQI value of >100 was found for Chandrabani, SukhRao, Mohand, Thanda Sort, Mothorowala, Kaliyanpur and Donkwala areas. Higher content of iron, nitrate, TDS, hardness, flourides, bicarbonates and manganese in the water from these areas is responsible for the higher WQI. To prevent the detrimental effect of the contaminated water it is advised that the water from the above mentioned areas should be treated before consumption.
3. Nearshore Water Quality of Rameswaram Island, Southeast Coast of India – A Statistical Assessment
Kathiravan K., Natesan Usha and Vishnunath R., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),12-23(2014)

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Rameswaram Island, located on the southeast coast of India in Tamil Nadu, is the main pilgrimage site influenced by anthropogenic intercessions. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics of nearshore water quality was carried out during April 2011 – March 2012 to explicate its quality variations. Principal component analysis was applied to the whole data to be factorized from which the total variability extraction and existing set of different physicochemical parameters linear relationships were obtained. In PCA, high loadings were obtained for pH, temperature, SPM, salinity, DO, BOD, nutrient species of nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll-a. Seasonal variations of the physicochemical parameters are observed with high deterioration of the water quality during summer.
4. Physical Impact Assessment (Air and Noise Component) of Waste Water Treatment Plant for Mehmood Booti/Salamat Pura, Shadbagh and North Site, Lahore, Pakistan
Saulat Beenish and Abrar Amina, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),24-31(2014)

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Estuarine water quality and species composition of phytoplankton was studied from July 2011 to June 2012 at four locations in Manakudy estuary .Water temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD levels were detected. 57 species of the phytoplankton were identified from all the locations. Diatoms were the most diverse group with 33 species followed by the Green algae (12); the blue green algae (7) and din flagellates (5) species. The percentage distribution of Bacillariophyta (74.23%) in station 2 contributed more, among all the stations. during the study period. The observation from the study revealedi that phytoplankton density is not very good predictors for the changes in water quality in the study area.
5. Particle Size Analysis of Soils and Its Interpolation using GIS Technique from Sangamner Area, Maharashtra, India
Keshav K. Deshmukh and Sainath P. Aher, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),32-37(2014)

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Soil is a substantial resource and displays adaptable physical, chemical, mineralogical, hydrological and geochemical properties. Particle size of any soil determines the productivity of crops. The soil textural distribution information is important for planning agriculture crop production, irrigation management, hydrological analysis and soil characteristics determination. However, high resolution soil particle information obtaining through manually field survey is time consuming and expensive. In view of this studies were carried out to know the particle size characteristics of soil in relation to soil textural and fertility status of Sangamner area of Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra. For this purpose particle size analysis (PSA) was determined from 62 soil samples and interpolated in Geographic Information System (GIS) software using kriging method. It gave the micro level particle size analysis information at enough and accurate scale. These information will become important in contribute to the societal demands and sustainable soil management in study area.
6. Effect of Acute Salinity Stress on Oxygen Consumption and Survival of the Fiddler Crab, Uca (Celuca) Lactea Annulipes (Milne- Edwards, 1837) in Different Seasons
Mangale Vilas Y. and Kulkarni Balasaheb G., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),38-42(2014)

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The present research was undertaken to study the effect of a sudden change in the salinity of the medium on the oxygen consumption and survival of fiddler crab Uca (Celuca) lacteal annulipes from mangrove area of Vashi. Since fiddler crabs are exclusively found in coastal and estuarine habitats in upper intertidal zone, they are subjected to significant fluctuations in salinity during monsoon due to seasonal river input, fresh water runoff and rainfall. The oxygen consumption increased and tolerance levels decreased in dilute seawater. Uca annulipes is a euryhaline where salinity tolerance is found to be season dependent. In monsoon the crabs could tolerate lower salinity of 4.86‰ and survived four days in fresh water. This shows a sort of adaptation to lower salinity during monsoon season. In pre and post monsoon all crabs subjected to fresh water died within a day. In winter they are more susceptible to lower salinity as compared to other seasons.
7. Airborne Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Concentrated Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Site of Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Senthil Velsivasakthivel and Natarajan Nandini, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),43-46(2014)

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Airborne Multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacteria were isolated from municipal solid waste dumping site of Bangalore using Anderson single stage air sampler. Bacterial samples in replicate were collected and MDR were isolated by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method.MDR organisms like Staphylococcus aureus was recorded higher in number in the ambient air near the dump sites. Maximum populations of multi drug resistant bacteria were recorded near the dumping site. Bacterial organisms like Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp., were the most prevalent organisms recovered. The change in the distribution pattern of MDR organisms in the ambient air was statistically found to be significant (Amoxicillin, p = 0.010; Ampicillin, p = 0.011; Ciproflaxin, p = 0.005; Rifampin, p = 0.025). The percentage of MDR in organisms like streptococci and Enterococci increased near the dump sites compared to percentage of MDR recorded upwind. Higher numbers of MDR were recovered in dump site and minimum was recorded at the distance of 100m away from the dumping site. This situation may cause health effect to the villages and the agricultural lands around the dumping site.
8. Plant species Richness and Phytosociological attributes of the Vegetation in the cold temperate zone of Darjiling Himalaya, India
Moktan Saurav and Das A.P. , Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),47-57(2014)

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The present study deals with the species richness and phytosociology in cold temperate zone vegetation of Darjiling Himalaya. The diversity indices represented the dominant species like Rhododendron arboreum Smith, Daphne bholua var. glacialis (Smith and Cave) Burtt and Fragaria nubicola (Lindley ex Hooker f.) Lacaita and rare species like Gamblea ciliata C.B. Clarke, Sambucus adnata Wallich ex DC., Treutlera insignis Hooker f., Arisaema concinuum Schott and Codonopsis affinis Hooker f. and Thomson. The maximum species diversity (Shannon-Weaver Index) was marked for herbs (4.332) followed by shrubs (3.577) and lowest for trees (3.131). The highest species richness (Menhinick’s Index) was estimated for herb layer (3.568) and least for the canopy (1.799). The concentration of dominance was 0.056, 0.032 and 0.014 respectively for the three layers. The species evenness was greater for herb layer (0.980) and least for the canopy (0.911). Soil parameters exhibited acidic property, the correlation between diversity and importance value indicated positive relation.
9. Lead Bioremediation with Respect to Mining and Industrial Effluents
Sirangala T Girisha, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),58-61(2014)

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Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to existing technologies for removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. Bioremediation of lead metal ions was studied using Gram positive, heterotroph Bacillus licheniformis. The bacterium was grown in different concentrations of lead metal ion and it was found to be naturally tolerant up to 100 ppm of lead, above which bacterial growth decreased and also biosorption of lead metal ions was almost nil. Experiments were carried out at neutral pH range with cell count of 109 cells/ mL which gave optimum results 60-75 % of biosorption was observed in case of 10 ppm and 50 ppm lead metal ion. In case of 100 ppm lead the uptake was 32%. Size of bacteria also decreased due to stress caused by lead metal ions and uptake of lead by bacteria was confirmed by EDX spectroscopy.
10. Phytoplankton Primary Production in the river Jharahi at Mairwa, India
Shahi Rudra Pratap and Hamidi Md. Khatibullah, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),62-67(2014)

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Phytoplankton Primary production in the river Jharahi at Mairwa was studied in 2008 and 2009. Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) of the river water at the different sites ranged from 0.044 mgC/l/hr to 0.422 mgC/l/hr in the first year and 0.037 mgC/l/hr to 0.394 mgC/l/hr in the second year. Net Primary Productivity (NPP) ranged from 0.021 mgC/l/hr to 0.314 mgC/l/hr in the first year and 0.021 mgC/l/hr to 0.297 mgC/l/hr in the second year of observation. The NPP/GPP value of the river ranged from 0.469 to 0.799 in the first year and 0.427 to 0.754 in the second year and Community Respiration (CR) ranged from 0.023 mgC/l/hr to 0.108 mgC/l/hr in the first year and 0.026 mgC/l/hr to 0.097 mgC/l/hr in the second year of observation. CR as percent of GPP ranged from 20.109 to 53.125 in the first year and from 24.619 to 57.292 in the second year.
11. Global Warming Mitigation Potential of Biogas Technology in Security Institutions of Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal
Mahat Sujata, LamichhanePrakash2 and Thapa Udya Kuwar, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),68-74(2014)

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Biogas technology has been established as excellent solution for the mitigation of global warming by trapping the GHGs emitted from natural decomposition of organic wastes and substituting unsustainable fuel consumption practice. This study was designed to estimate the potential size of biogas plant from total organic wastes (night soil and kitchen waste), to estimate the GHG emissions from night soil, global warming mitigation potential (GMP) and carbon credits of potential biogas plants the in the security institutions (Army and Police barracks) in Kathmandu valley, central Nepal. Potential size of biogas plant was estimated using the method practiced by BSP-N whereas standard method of USEPA was adopted to estimate emission of GHGs from night soil. An average of 37 m3 biogas plant can be installed in a security institution. One institution was found to emitting 0.22 ton/yr CH4, 4.55 ton/yr CO2 and 0.33 ton/yrN2O. And the total GHG emitted by one institution in terms of CO2 equivalent was 111.09 ton CO2-eqv/yr in an average. Finally, one such institution has average GMP of 7.69 ton CO2-eqv/yr. With the rate of US $10/ton CO2-eqv, every barrack in Kathmandu valley could earn US $ 76.91/yr through CDM. The potential contribution of biogas technology in mitigating GHGs should encourage policy makers to promote establishments of biogas technology in such institutions rather being limited in promoting household plants as an effective tool for climate change mitigation.
12. Antibacterial Properties of Various Medicinal Plants Extracts against Klebsiella Sp.
Sneh Lata, Geetika Sharma and Harmanjot Kaur Sandhu, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),75-78(2014)

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The present study involves the checking of antibacterial properties of various medicinal plants like lemon grass, stevia, jatropha against Klebsiella sp. as these bacteria can cause many diseases. Firstly culture was authenticated by Gram staining and also biochemical characterization was done which confirms the strain of bacteria. After that extracts of these plants like methanol extract, chloroform extract and hot water extract were prepared by using respective chemical .These extracts were prepared from leaves of respective plant. Zone of inhibition of each plant extract against Klebsiella sp. was measured and antibacterial activity of each extract of plant was compared for the results.
13. Assessment of Pesticide Use and Heavy Metal Analysis of Well Water in JhikuKhola Watershed, Kavrepalanchowk, Nepal
Neupane Bigyan and Thapa Poonam, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),79-83(2014)

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Pannchkhaal Valley in Kavrepalanchowk district has been known for using heavy amount of pesticides in vegetable farms for over three decades. As the inorganic pesticides contain elements such as arsenic, cadmium, iron, aluminum, sulfates, lead, mercury and copper, they do not degrade readily and remain in the soil and water system for long time. Traces of these are also likely to leach to groundwater sources, which is depleting for various reasons including the climate change impacts. This study attempted to assess the extent of use of pesticides and its implication in the depleting ground water source, and examine if there is heavy metal contamination in well-water used for domestic purposes. The method employed to assess the extent of use of pesticides included desk study, field survey, focused group discussion and key informants, whereas water samples from the wells were analyzed in the laboratory to assess Lead, Copper and Mercury content in the well water. There is a growing awareness about the adverse effects of pesticides and yet all households interviewed in the study were found to be using pesticides. Nonetheless, a majority of the respondent believe that the use of pesticides has been progressively reduced. Well water analysis showed that the presence of Copper is within the accepted limit. Lead was found to be in considerable amount, but the Mercury concentration in the well-water was found to be very high from 0.008 to 0.037 in four wells studied in the valley. Though there is no indication of mercury based pesticides being used, high concentration of mercury in the well-water deserves a thorough examination of possible sources form where it is coming to water.
14. Soil Major (N, P, K) and Micro (Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) Nutrients as Influenced by Different Herbicides in Presence of Fertilizer (NPK) in Field Condition of Aligarh Soil under Wheat Cultivation
Ritu Singh, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),84-93(2014)

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The present study investigated the effect of different herbicide named pendimethalin, 2,4-D, clodinafop, metsulfuron methyl and metribuzin while applying in combination with uniform dose of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) on soil N, P, K, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe nutrients in field experiment on Aligarh soil growing wheat as test crop over a period of 120 days. The study revealed that with high concentration of all the herbicides all the macro as well as micro nutrients decreased. The medium and low herbicide concentrations of all the herbicides proved beneficial for increasing the soil N, P, K and Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe as compared to control. On the other hand use of inorganic fertilizer also may have enhanced these nutrients in soil as these nutrients play a vital role in growth and development of a plant. In this field experiment the use of pendimethalin @1000 gai. proved best for both type of soil nutrients , which may have exerted a positive effect on wheat yield as compared to other herbicides as noticed at harvesting. Metribuzin @ 250 gai. proved least effective herbicide for these macro and micro nutrients and also from the point of view of wheat growth and yield.

Review Paper

15. Nickel as a Pollutant and its Management
Gopal Rathor, Neelam Chopra and Tapan Adhikari, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(10),94-98(2014)

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Nickel is naturally occurring in soil and surface water but some actives like industrialization, sewage, use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides etc. increase the concentration in environment. There many techniques are available for management of nickel pollution (Phytoremediation, Chemical remediation, remediation using nanoparticles). In this study we find out the effect of nickel on plant, human and microorganisms.The object of this paper is overview of the occurrence and sources of nickel in environment, as well as effect of nickel on human, plant and microorganism and how to manage the nickel pollution.