International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Flow of water through soil columns as influenced by cassava wastewaters application

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 9, Issue (4), Pages 23-37, October,22 (2020)


This study investigated the effects of cassava wastewater and soil types on the flow rate through saturated soil columns. This was with a view to examine the vertical movement of trace elements from the wastewater in the columns of soil. The experiment for column leaching was carried out using three different types of soil (Iwo, Apomu, Egbeda) plus four variable levels of cassava wastewater (0, 6, 12, and 18ml). The samples of soil were compressed to 1.50g/cm3bulk density in order to simulate the soil bulk density obtained at the soil collection site. The soil columns were saturated with de-ionized water after which the various levels of cassava wastewater were added. The columns were then left for 24 hours to allow for the adsorption of the trace elements in the wastewater to soil particles. After a day period of adsorption, each soil column was leached with 1767.1cm3 (translating to 10cm depth) of de-ionized water and the leachate flow rate monitored every 2 minutes. The depth of leachate was measured and the flow rate calculated. The results showed that the flow rate was higher at 12ml of effluent for Iwo and Egbeda while Apomu was slower at almost all the four levels of the wastewater applied. Flow through the columns of Iwo soil rises faster than that of the other two soils. The result also showed that the average total leachate of 88.99, 99.86, and 100.87ml of water flowed through the columns containing Apomu, Egbeda and Iwo soils respectively. On the average, the time to peak of 13.71, 25.90 and 28.07 minutes were observed for Iwo, Apomu and Egbeda soils respectively. Two-way ANOVA shows that there are significant differences among the three soil types (F = 22.585, df = 2, P < 0.05), the four levels of cassava wastewater (F = 4.568, df = 3, P < 0.05) and the interaction between the soil types and cassava wastewater (F = 14.702, df = 6, P < 0.05) on the time to peak flow. The ANOVA results also showed no significant variations among the soil types (F = 4.768, df = 2, P < 0.05), but significant differences among the levels of cassava wastewater (F = 11.107, P < 0.05) and the interaction between the soil types and cassava wastewater (F = 3.806, df = 6, P < 0.05) on the total leachate. However, the Post-Hoc Test (using Tukey HSD) for multiple comparisons also shows that the soil types and all the levels of cassava wastewater are significant different in their effects on the time to peak flow rate. It can be seen that cassava wastewater on the agricultural soils will affect the flow rate of water through the soil profile hence there is need for proper treatment of the effluent before discharge into the environment.


  1. Afuye, G.G. and Mogaji, K.O. (2015)., Effect of Cassava Effluents on Domestic Consumption of Shallow Well Water in Owo Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria., Physical Sciences Research International, 3(3), 37-43.
  2. Ehiagbonare, J.E., Enabulele, S.A., Babatunde, B.B., and Adjarhore, R. (2009)., Effect of Cassava Effluent on Okada Denizens., Sci. Res. Essay, 4(4), 310-313.
  3. Claude, F. and Denis, F. (1990)., African Cassava Mosaic Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, and Control., Plant Dis, 64(6), 404-411.
  4. Mbongo, P.N. and Antai, S.P. (1994)., Utilization of Cassava Peels as Substrate for Crude Protein Formation., Plants Foods Hum. Nutr., 46, 345-351.
  5. Horsfall, M., Abia, A.A., and Spiff, A.I. (2003)., Removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) Ions from Wastewater by Cassava (Manihotesculenta Crantz) Waste Biomass., Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2(10), 360-364.
  6. Oboh, G. (2006)., Nutrient Enrichment of Cassava Peels Using a Mixed Culture of Saccharomyces Cerevisae and Lactobacillus spp. Solid Media Fermentation., Elect. J. Biotechnol., 9(1), 46-49.
  7. Uguru, H. and Obah, G. E. (2019)., Remediation of Effluent from Cassava Processing Mills., Direct Research Journal of Public Health and Environmental Technology, 4(4), 21-25.
  8. Nwaugo, V.O., Chima, G.N., Etok C.A. and Ogbonna, C.E. (2008)., Impact of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) on Soil Physicochemical and Microbial Community Structure and Functions., Nig. J. Microbiol., 22, 1681-1688.
  9. Okunade, David A. and Adekalu, Kenneth O. (2014)., Characterization of Cassava Waste Effluents Contaminated Soils in Ile-Ife, Nigeria., European International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(4).
  10. CBN (2011)., Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Annual Report 2011: Real Sector Developments., CBN, Abuja, Nigeria. Pg. 150
  11. Oti, N.N. (2002)., Discriminant Functions for Classifying Erosion of Degraded Lands of Otamiri, South-Eastern, Nigeria., Agroscience, 3(1), 24-40.
  12. Uzoije, A.P, Egwuonwu, N. and Onunkwo, A.A. (2011)., Distribution of Cyanide in a Cassava Mill Effluent Polluted Eutrictropofluvent Soils of Ohaji Area, South-Eastern Nigeria., Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 2(2), 49-57.
  13. Osunbitan, J.A., Olushina, J.O., Jeje, J.O., Taiwo, K.A., Faborode, M.O. and Ajibola, O.O. (2000)., Information on Micro-Enterprises involved in Cassava and Palm Oil Processing in Osun and Ondo States of Nigeria., Technovation, 20(10), 577-585.
  14. Orhue, E.R, Imasuen, E.E. and Okunima, D.E. (2014)., Effect of Cassava Mill Effluent on Some Soil Chemical Properties and the Growth of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairiaoccidentalis Hook F.)., Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 6(2), 320-325
  15. Osunbitan, J.A. (2007)., Simulating Soil and Groundwater Contamination by Copper and Manganese from Agriculture Fungicide., Ph.D. Thesis of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  16. Nwakaudu, M.S., Kamen, F.L., Afube, G., Nwakaudu, A.A. and Ike, I.S. (2012)., Impact of Cassava Processing Effluent on Agricultural Soil: A Case Study of Maize Growth., Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(5), 881-885.
  17. Obueh H.O. and Odesiri-Eruteyan, E. (2016)., A Study on the Effects of Cassava Processing Wastes on the Soil Environment of a Local Cassava Mill., J. Pollut. Eff. Cont. 4, 177-182.
  18. Boadi, N.O., Twumasi, S.K. and Ephraim, J.H. (2008)., Impact of Cyanide Utilization in Mining on the Environment., 3(1), 101-108.
  19. Flynn, C.M. and McGill, S.L. (1995)., Cyanide Chemistry-Precious Metals Processing and Waste Treatment., U.S. Bureau of Mines, NTIS Pub., pp. 96-117841
  20. Oboh, G. and Akindahunsi, A.A. (2003)., Chemical Changes in Cassava Peels Fermented with Mixed Culture of Aspergill usniger and Two Species of Lactobacillus in Integrated Biosystem., Applied Tropical Agriculture, 8(2), 63-68.