International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Lethal efficacy of phytochemicals as sustainable sources of insecticidal formulations derived from the leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants to control Dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti (Dipetra: Culicide)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biotechnology, Sai Nath University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 44-54, July,22 (2020)


Aedes aegypti mosquitoes transmitted the Dengue and Zika viruses to humans, which have recently caused the high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Vaccine and antiviral therapies for dengue and Zika infections are not available, and control of mosquito vectors is a specific strategy that minimizes the occurrence of these arboviral infections. The present research was aimed at exploring the larvicide and pupicidal properties of leaf extracts of three medicinal plants (Lantana camara, Catharanthus roseus, and Ficus religiosa) with acetone solvent against the immature stages of Aedes aegypti. The powdered plant material (leaf) of each plant was extracted using acetone. At 24 h post-exposure, the aqueous leaf extract measured at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm against Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae. All the three medicinal plant species were evaluated had possessed a different range of larvicidal and pupicidal property. Highest larvicidal and pupicidal activities were exhibited by Catharanthus roseus (LC50 ranged from 78.56-228.63ppm and LC90 ranged from 132.88 - 288.61ppm) compared to Lantana camara (LC50 ranged from 198.52-309.64ppm and LC90 ranged from 256.24-392.27 ppm) and Ficus religiosa (LC50 ranged from 223.25-339.16ppm and LC90 ranged from 289.3-419.42ppm). Catharanthus roseus leaves showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activities have contained alkaloids (catharanthine, tabersonine and ajmalicine). It can be used as an eco-friendly, repellent or anti-feeding and target-specific approach to control dengue and zika vector, Aedes aegypti. Further, advanced monitoring of the mode of intervention by the phytoconstituents, synthetic analogues, and field-based research is important for preparing strategies in the Aedes vector management programs.


  1. Swale D.R., Engers D.W., Bollinger S.R., Gross A., Inocente E.A., Days E., Kanga F., Johnson R.M., Yang L., Bloomquist J.R., Hopkins C.R., Piermarini P.M. and Denton J.S. (2016)., An insecticide resistance-breaking mosquitocide targeting inward rectifier potassium channels in vectors of Zika virus and malaria., Sci Rep., 6, 36954. doi: 10.1038/srep36954.
  2. Musso D. and Gubler D.J. (2015)., Zika virus: following the path of dengue and chikungunya?, Lancet, 386, 243-244.
  3. Paixao E.S., Teixeira M.G. and Rodrigues L.C. (2017)., Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases., BMJ Glob Health, 3, e000530. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000530
  4. Sarkar J.K., Chatterjee S.N. and Chakravarty S.K. (1964)., Haemorrhagic fever in Calcutta: some epidemiological observations., Indian J Med Res., 52, 651-659.
  5. World Health Organization (2017)., Zika virus infection - India., URL: Accessed 10 March 2019.
  6. Gubler D.J. (2012)., The economic burden of dengue., Am J Trop Med Hyg., 86(5), 743-744.
  7. Report (2014)., Annual report of NVBDCP., URL: Accessed 10 March 2019.
  8. Whitehorn J. and Farrar J. (2010)., Dengue., Br Med Bull., 95, 161-173.
  9. Nicolini A.M., McCracken K.E. and Yoon J.Y. (2017)., Future developments in biosensors for field-ready Zika virus diagnostics., J Biol Eng., 11, 7. doi: 10.1186/s13036-016-0046-z.
  10. WHO (2016)., Dengue vaccine: WHO position paper-July 2016., 91, 349-364. URL: wer9130.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 March 2019.
  11. Wattal B.L., Joshi G.C. and Das M. (1981)., Role of agriculture insecticides in precipitating vector resistance., J Communicable Diseases, 13, 71-73.
  12. Pillai M.K.K. (1996)., Vector resistance to insecticides., Proc Nat Ac Sci India, 68(B), 77-97.
  13. Kedia A., Prakash B., Mishra P.K., Singh P. and Dubey N.K. (2015)., Botanicals as eco friendly biorational alternatives of synthetic pesticides against Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)-a review., J Food Sci Technol., 52(3), 1239-1257.
  14. Feinstein L. (1952)., Insecticides from plants. In: Insects: The year book of agriculture, USA, Washington., 222-229.
  15. Govindarajan M., Jebanesan A. and Pushpanathan T. (2008)., Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes., Parasitol Res., 102, 289-292.
  16. Anonymous (2014)., Global Invasive Species Database., Retrieved 2014, 03-22. URL: Accessed 10 March 2019.
  17. Anonymous (2019)., Flora of China: Catharanthus roseus., URL: flora_id=2&taxon_id=200018366. Accessed 10 March 2019.
  18. Anonymous (2019)., Drug Digest: Catharanthus roseus., URL: Accessed 10 March 2019.
  19. Chisholm Hugh ed. (1911)., Peepul. Encyclopædia Britannica., 21 (11th edition). Cambridge University Press, 45. URL: Accessed 10 March 2019.
  20. Bar A. and Andrew J. (2013)., Morphology and morphometry of Aedes aegypti larvae., Annual Review and Research in Biology, 3(1), 1-21
  21. World Health Organization. (2005)., Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides., WHO, Geneva, 9. URL: 69101. Accessed 10 March 2019.
  22. Abbott W.S. (1925)., A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide., J Econ Entmol., 18, 265-267.
  23. Dutta P., Prakash P., Bhattacharyya D.R., Khan S.A., Gogoi P.R. and Sharma C.K., et al. (2010)., Mosquito biodiversity of Dibru-Saikhowa biosphere reserve in Assam., Ind J Environ Biol., 31(5), 695-699.
  24. Tandon H.O. (1998)., Modern trends in Research of vectors of Medical importance., Adv Med Entmol Human Welfare, 1, 29-37.
  25. Sujatha C.H., Vasuki T., Mariappan T., Kalyanasundram M. and Das P.K. (1988)., Evaluation of plant extracts for biological activity against mosquitoes., Int Pest Control, 30, 122-124.
  26. Fallatah S.A. and Khater E.I. (2010). Potential of medicinal plants in mosquito control. J Egypt Soc Parasitol., 40, 1-26., undefined, undefined
  27. Rehman J.U., Ali A. and Khan I.A. (2014)., Plant based products: use and development as repellents against mosquitoes: A review., Fitoterapia, 95, 65-74.
  28. Pedro G., Aubrey A. and Bryle E. (2014)., Larvicidal activity of selected plant extract against Dengue vector Aedes aegypti Mosquito., Int Res J Bio Sci., 3(4), 23-32.
  29. Aziz M.A., Shawn M.M.A.K., Rahman S., Islam T., Mita M., Faruque A. and Rana M.S. (2013)., Secondary metabolites, antimicrobial, brine shrimp lethality & 4th instar Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvicidal screening of organic & inorganic root extracts of Microcos paniculata., J Pharmacy Bio Sci., 8(5), 58-65.
  30. Remiya K.M. and Logaswamy S. (2010)., Larvicidal efficacy of leaf extract of two botanicals against the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Dippetra: Culicidae)., Ind J Nat Products Res., 1(2), 208-212.
  31. Hemalatha P., Elumalai D., Janaki A., Babu M., Velu K., Velayutham K. and Kaleena P.K. (2015)., Larvicidal activity of Lantana camara aculeata against three important mosquito species., J Entom Zol Studies, 3(1), 174-181.
  32. Deepa J., Gokulakrishnan J., Baranitharan M. and Dhanasekaran S. (2015)., Larvicidal activity of Indian medicinal plants on the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus., Int J Pure Applied Zoology, 3, 2, 130-136.
  33. Brahmachari G., Gorai D. and Roy R. (2013)., Argemone mexicana: Chemical and pharmacological aspects., Rev Bras Farmacogn., 23,559-575.
  34. Kamatchi P.A.C., Maheswaran R. and Ignacimuthu S. (2016)., Evaluation of Larval Toxicity of Lantana Camara L. and Catharanthus Roseus L. against Culex Quinquefasciatus say and Aedes Aegypti L. Entom Ornithol Herpetol.,, 5, 170. doi:10.4172/2161-0983.1000170
  35. Rosario R., Mario A. and Norzagaray C. (2015)., Toxicity of Mexican native plant extracts against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)., Asian Pac J Trop Biomed., 5(4), 287-291.
  36. Das N.G., Goswami D. and Rabha B. (2007)., Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts., J Vector Borne Dis., 44, 145-148.]
  37. Jaenson T.G., Pålsson K. and Borg-Karlson A.K. (2006)., Evaluation of extracts and oils of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellent plants from Sweden and Guinea-Bissau., J Med Entomol., 43, 113-119.