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Physicochemical characterization of city supply, underground and river water in Kathmandu, Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 9, Issue (3), Pages 35-43, July,22 (2020)


Physicochemical characterization of water is imperative for evaluating the palatability of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. Water samples were collected from three different sources namely city supply, underground and river in Kathmandu. The pH, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity were measured and compared with standard value. The results of present study showed that sample water from the city supply were relatively clean and free from contamination though the water from Tyangla Sarkari Dhara was slightly acidic. As regards to underground water samples, the values measured for all parameter were within the range of standard value. It was observed that the underground water was slightly alkaline and hard especially the Panga well water. The physicochemical parameter showed that the river water (Bishnumati and Bagmati) was highly polluted and not potable. Alkalinity and conductivity exceeded the standard value and content of dissolved oxygen was as low as 2ppm. The results indicate that the rivers of Kathmandu are highly contaminated with alkaline and conductive pollutants. Hence river water is not suit fitted for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses and also dangerous for aquatic animal.


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