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Rapid urbanization Vis a Vis meeting target of access to improved sanitation

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Environmental Science, Egerton University. P.O. Box 536 Egerton Njoro, Kenya
  • 2Department of Environmental Science, Egerton University. P.O. Box 536 Egerton Njoro, Kenya
  • 3Natural Sciences, Kenya National Commission for UNESCO, P.O. Box 72017-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 8, Issue (4), Pages 46-51, October,22 (2019)


The quality of life of members of a household is affected directly by the sanitation and hygiene of household. Nakuru town was noted to have been the fastest growing urban area East and Central Africa. Hence the need to assess the spatial-temporal variation in household access to sanitation facilities as the urban area grows. A cross sectional survey was undertaken. Data was collected through remote sensing and an interview administered to key informants to elicit information on the sanitation facilities used in different areas on a time series in Nakuru Municipality and surrounding peri-urban area. A structured questionnaire was also administered to 400 respondents drawn from households that were randomly selected from the study area. Descriptive statistics was used in the analysis of data collected. The results of the study showed that over the years the rate of expansion of sewerage systems was very low serving areas surrounding the urban core. The results also showed that a total of 51.5% of the respondents used a pit latrine that could be a potential source of contamination of underground water sources. This may impede realization of SDG 6 target 6.1 of universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all. The study recommends improvement of the pit latrines by use of lining to protect underground water from horizontal contaminants.


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