International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Physico-chemical parameters of industrial efflents from a starch-mill industry in Anambra State, Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Abia State University, Abia State, Nigeria

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 8, Issue (3), Pages 26-33, July,22 (2019)


Environmental pollution is one of the chief causes of sickness in our society. Industrial effluents unfortunately have their final destinations in streams, which serve as the main source of water supply to most rural communities. There is need to monitor the effluents discharged by industries to ensure that they comply with regulatory standards. This work examined some physicochemical parameters of effluents from a Starch-mill Industry in Anambra state. This company discharged effluents in non-compliance with the Nigerian National Regulations as confirmed from the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Nitrogen, and Turbidity results from this research. The heavy metals except Lead and Copper had concentrations that were within WHO/FEPA limits. The Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) concentrations of the Starch Mill was above the WHO and FEPA standards. The other heavy metals have concentrations that were within WHO/FEPA limits. These confirmed results posed health risks to several rural communities which rely on the receiving water bodies as their primary source of domestic water. There is need for the intervention of appropriate regulatory agencies to ensure production of high quality treated final effluents. This scenario is typical of most industries in developing nations where enforcement of environmental regulations are deficient. To avoid pollution, Regulatory Authorities should closely monitor compliance by industries.


  1. Adigun B.A. (2012)., Water quality management in aquaculture and freshwater zooplankton production for use in fish hatcheries., Alabi Printing Production, Nigeria, 1, 22.
  2. Adhikari S., Gupta S.K. and Banerjee S.K. (1993)., Heavy metals content of city sewage and sludge., Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 41(1), 170-172.
  3. Adriano D.C. (2013)., Trace elements in terrestrial environments., Biochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals, 867.
  4. Ahmad S.A. and Rizvi R. (2012)., Toxic effects of vegetables grown by city effluents on human health., The Environ. Monitor, 12(1), 21-22.
  5. Ahmed K. (2000)., Impact of Industrial Effluents on Surface Waters., Science, Technology & Development, 19(4), 12-17.
  6. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998)., Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste water., American Public Health Association, Washington, 1130.
  7. Anna E.O. and Adedipe N.O. (2012)., Water quality monitoring and environmental status in Nigeria., FEPA Monograph 6, FEPA, Abuja, Nigeria, 239.
  8. Khan F.A. and Ansari A.A. (2005)., Eutrophication: an ecological vision., The botanical review, 71(4), 449-482.
  9. Report (1992)., Committee for Inland Fisheries of Africa (CIFA)., Technical paper No.25, FAO, Rome, 118.
  10. Connell D.W. (1997)., Basic concepts of environmental chemistry., Chapter-20 (Ecotoxicology - the interaction of chemicals with ecosystems), Lewis publishers, New York, 459-467.
  11. DWAF (1995)., South African water quality management series. Procedures to Assess effluent Discharge Impacts., WRC Report No. TT 64/94. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry and Water Research Commission, Pretoria, 26-29.
  12. DWAF (1996)., South African Water Quality Guidelines., Domestic Uses, Vol. 1 2nd. Ed. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, 37.
  13. Dwivedi B.K. and Pandey G.C. (2002)., Physico-chemical factors and algal diversity of two ponds in Faizabad., India Poll. Res., 21(3), 361-370.
  14. Ehmann W. and Vance D. (1996)., Studies of trace element involvement in human disease by in vitro activation analysis., Journal of radioanalytical and nuclear chemistry, 203(2), 429-445.
  15. Fakayode S.O. (2005)., Impact of industrial effluents on water quality of the receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria., Ajaem-Ragee, 1-13.
  16. Fang Z., Guo T. and Welz B. (1991)., Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with pre-concentration by flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction., Talanta, 38(6), 613-619.
  17. Ghafoor A., Ahmad S., Qadir M., Murtaza G. and Hussain I. (2001)., Movement and retention of lead and chromium in soil applied with irrigation water., Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 38, 8-11.
  18. Ghafoor A., Rauf A., Arif M. and Muzaffar W. (1994)., Chemical composition of effluents from different industries of Faisalabad City., Pak. J. Agriculture Sci., 31(4), 367-370.
  19. Giusquiani P.L., Gigliotti G. and Businelli D. (1992)., Mobility of heavy metals in urban waste-amended soils., Journal of Environmental Quality, 21(3), 330-335.
  20. Jaji M.O., Bamgbose O., Odukoya O.O. and Arowolo T.A. (2007)., Water quality assessment of Ogun River, south west Nigeria., Environmental monitoring and assessment, 133(1-3), 473-482.
  21. Kakar R.G., Yasinzai M., Salarzai A.U. and Nasir M.H. (2005)., Concentration of heavy metals in soil and spinach (Spinacea olerácea) irrigated with sewage water in Quetta city., The Environ Monitor, 6, 41-45.
  22. Mann J.G. and Liu Y.A. (1999)., Industrial water reuse and waste water minimization., McGraw Hill, New York, 77-122.
  23. Muhibbu-din O.I., Aduwo A.O. and Adedeji A.A. (2011)., Study of physico-chemical parameters of effluent impacted stream in Obafemi Awolowo University., Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 28-30.
  24. Muwanga A. and Barifaijo E. (2006)., Impact of industrial activities on heavy metal loading and their physico-chemical effects on wetlands of Lake Victoria basin (Uganda)., African Journal of Science and Technology, 7(1).
  25. Nabi G., Ashraf M. and Aslam M.R. (2001)., Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils irrigated with industrial effluents., Science Technology & Development, 20(1), 32-36.
  26. Okoye P.A.C., Enemuoh R.E. and Ogunjiofor J.C. (2002)., Traces of heavy metals in Marine crabs., J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 27(1), 76-77.
  27. Osibanjo O., Daso A.P. and Gbadebo A.M. (2011)., The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and River Alaro in Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria., African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(4), 696-702.
  28. Rao P.V. (2005)., Textbook of environmental engineering., Eastern Economy Ed., Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 280.
  29. Sandoyin (1991)., Eutrophication trends in the water quality of the Rhode River., J. Mar. Biol. Assoc., 54, 825-855.
  30. Schwartz T.A. (1994)., Applying Chemistry to Society., Wine-Brown Publishers, American society, New York, 34-35.
  31. Watson C. and Cichra C.E. (2006)., Department of fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Florida cooperatives extension services., Institute of food and Agricultural sciences, University of Florida, First edition, 48-50.
  32. World Health Organization (WHO), (1996)., Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Health Criteria and other supporting information.,
  33. WHO. (1990)., Trace elements in human nutrition., Technical report series No. 797, Geneva.
  34. WHO. (1989)., Health guidelines for use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture., Technical Report Series 778. Geneva, Switzerland, 65-69.
  35. Wurts W.A. (2000)., Sustenance aquaculture in the twenty-first century., Reviews in fisheries science, 8(2), 141-150