Urban planning and vegetation in Togo: what approaches for the mitigation of global warming in the city of Lomé in a context of climate change?
- 1Laboratory of forest researches, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, 01BP 1515 Lomé 01-Togo
- 2Laboratory of forest researches, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, 01BP 1515 Lomé 01-Togo
- 3Laboratory of forest researches, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lomé, 01BP 1515 Lomé 01-Togo
Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 67-73, February,22 (2018)
Urban planning must take into account the preservation of the balance of the ecosystem by prioritizing vegetation for sustainable development. The city of Lomé, inseparable from the green spaces in the colonial time is today in rapid urbanization. The purpose of this research is to analyze the evolution of the temperature and the mismatch between urban planning and the gradual disappearance of the vegetation cover in the prospect to seek an approach to sustainable urban planning. The methodology relied on the use of the technique of Visual (image-interpretation) and digital analysis of images by remote sensing at 30 m resolution. The resulting vector file has been used to extract the study area on satellite images of the years 1986-2000-2013-2016.The process took into account classes of Vegetation-built occupation, compared with the rise in the temperature average of the same years. It appears clear that the mineralization of the soil at the expense of the canopy is the raison of the rise of temperatures in Lomé. Only the urban planning of the vegetation cover can mitigate warming in Lomé.
- Moreno E., Bazoglu G. and Warh R. (2008)., The State of the World’sCities 2008/2009 – Harmonious Cities., United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Ed. Earthscan, London Sterling, VA, 259.
- Moustier P. (2004)., The joint and sustainable management of the urban truck-farming fileries in Smith O.B, M Moustier P. and al, Sustainable development of the urban agriculture in French-speaking Africa., Stakes, concepts and methods. CIRAD and CDRI, Nairobi, Kenya, 79-113.
- Nzoussi H. (2014)., Urban environment management in Brazzaville: challenges and opportunities., European Scientific Journal, 10(29). ISSN: 1857–7881 (Print) - ISSN 1857- 7431.
- Johnson D. and Wilson S. (2009)., The Socio-Spatial Dynamics of Extreme Urban Heat Events, The Case of Heat-Related Deaths in Philadelphia., Applied Geography, 29(3), 419-434.
- Mochida A. and Lun I. (2008)., Prediction of Wind Environment and Thermal Comfort at Pedestrian Level in Urban Area., Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 96(10-11), 1498-1527.
- Bougé F. (2009)., Characterization of the public green spaces according to their place in the urban-rural gradient., Case Study: The green weft of the Tourangelle Urban area, the project of the end of studies, françois-rabelais University, 86.
- Kolokotroni M. and Giridharan R. (2008)., Urban heat island intensity in London: An investigation of the impact of physical characteristics on changes in outdoor air temperature during summer., Solar energy, 82(11), 986-998.
- Bouko S., Sinsin B. and Soule G. (2007)., Effects of the dynamics of land use on the floral structure and diversity of the clear forests and the savannas in Benin., Tropicultura, 25(4), 221-227.
- Bamba I., Mama A., Neuba D. and Koffi Y. (2008)., Influence of the anthropological actions (shares) on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the land use in the province of Bottom (Stocking) – Congo., Sciences & nature, 5(1), 49-60.
- Bamba I., Barima Y.S.S. and Bogaert J. (2010)., Influence of population density on the spatial structure of a forest landscape in the Congo Basin in DR Congo., Tropical Conservation Science, 3(1), 31-44.
- Shashua-bar and Land hoffman M.E. (2000)., Geometry and orientation aspects in passive cooling of canyonstreets with trees., plea, cambridge, ukp, 483-488.
- Liébard A. and DeHerde A. (2005)., Pact of architecture and bioclimatic town planning / to design, to build and to fit out with the sustainable development., Le Moniteur, Paris, 776.
- McPherson G., Simpson J.R., Peper P.J., Maco S.E. and Xiao Q. (2005)., Municipal forest benefits and costs in five US cities., Journal of forestry, 103(8), 411-416.
- Dimoudi A. and Nikolopoulou M. (2003)., Vegetation in the urban environment: microclimatic analysis and benefits., Energy and Buildings, 35(1), 69-76.
- Honjou T. and Takakura T. (1990)., Simulation of thermal effects of urban green .areas on their surrounding areas., Energy and Buildings, 15(3-4), 443-446.
- Liu K. (2002)., Energy efficiency and environmental benefits of rooftop gardens., National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, 4(2), 17-23.
- Ca V.T., Asaeda T. and Abu E.M. (1998)., Reductions in air conditioning energy caused by a nearby park., Energy and buildings, 29(1), 83-92.
- Mehdi L., Weber C., Di Pietro F. and Wissal S. (2012)., Evolution of the place of the plant in the city, the green space to the green frame», Vertig O., The electronic journal of science of the environment [On Web], 12(2), | september 2012, posted on février 10, 2014, viewed on octobre 02, 2017. URL : http://vertigo. revues.org/12670 ; DOI : 10.4000/vertigo.12670
- Polorigni b. (2012)., The green spaces in African cities, Diagnosis and perspectives: Case of the city of Lomé., Memory of DEA, management of the Environment, University of Lomé, 104.
- Kassay N. (2010)., The public politicy of the management of the green spaces by the city hall of Kinshasa, 12th general assembly of Codesria, Management of the African public place, from 07 at laïllep., Provendierd. And colsonf., 2013/ Advantages of vegetable in town – Synthesis of the scientific works and the method of analysis. plante&cité, paris, 36.
- Badameli A. and Dubreuil V. (2015)., Diagnostic du changement climatique au Togo à travers l’évolution de la température entre 1961 et 2010., XXVIIIe Colloque de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie, 421-426.
- Aafi A. (2005)., Use of the SPOT satellite images for the cartography of the chaps of populations of the forest of Momora (Maroc)., French magazine of Photogrammetry and Remote detection (RFPT), n°178, 29-35.
- Mama J.V. and Oloukoi J. (2003)., Evaluation of the precision of the analog treatments of the satellite images in the study of the dynamics of the land use., Remote detection, 3(5), 429-441.
- Takou P.W. (2016)., Forward-looking modelling of the city of Lomé: Dynamics of the landscapes, the forward-looking scenarios and the spatial simulation., Doctoral thesis, University of Lomé and University of Toulouse department of geograph, Research laboratory of biogeographical and environmental studies (labre) University of Lomé and laboratory of geography and the environment (geode) university of Toulouse jean jaurès 298.
- Mansouri O. (2008)., The influence of the reflectivity of materials (albedo) on the modification of the microclimate and the outside thermal comfort in a canyon., urban/case of coudiat of Constantine-memory for obtaining the diploma of magister option: Bioclimatic architecture university mentouri constantine; Faculty of Science of the earth, the geography and the town and country planning department of architecture and town planning, 228.
- Alexandri E. and Jones P. (2008)., Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to Greenwalls and green roofs in diverse climates., Building and Environment, 43(4), 480-493.
- Jaffal I., Ouldboukhitine S.E. and Belarbi R. (2012)., A comprehensive study of the impact of green roofs on building energy performance., Renewable energy, 43, 157-164.
- Raoufou R., Kouami K. and Koffi A. (2011)., Woody plant species used in urban forestry in West Africa: Case study in Lom, capital town of Togo., Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 3(1), 21-31.
- Polorigni B. (2012)., The green spaces in the African cities, the diagnosis and the perspectives: case of the city of Lomé., Memory of post-graduate diploma, management of the environment, university of Lomé, 104.
- Bowler D.E., Buyung-Ali L., Knight T.M. and Pullin A.S. (2010)., Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence., Landscape and urban planning, 97(3), 147-155.
- Bueno-Bartholomei C.L. and Labaki L.C. (2003)., How much does the change of species of trees affect their solar radiation attenuation., In International Conference on Urban Climate, 5, 267-270.
- Georgi N.J. and Zafiriadis K. (2006)., The impact of park trees on microclimate in urban areas., Urban Ecosystems, 9(3), 195-209.
- Jack-Scott E., Piana M., Troxel B., Murphy-Dunning C. and Ashton M.S. (2013)., Stewardship success: How community group dynamics affect urban street tree survival and growth., Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 39(4), 189-196.
- Mollie C. (2009)., Trees in the city, the plant town planning., Acts the South in coedition with green City, 260.
- Haddad Y. (1997)., The urban arrangedtrees:A stake for multiple partners., Annals of the Urban Research; Natures in cities, n° 74, 113-118.
- Cook E.A. (2002)., Landscape structure indices for assessing urban ecological networks., Landscape and urban planning, 58(2-4), 269-280.
- Kuchelmeister G. and Braatz S. (1993)., A new vision of urban forestry., Unasylva, 44(173), 3-12.
- Radji R. and Kokou K. (2013)., Classification and therapeutic values of ornamental plants in the Togo., VertigO-The electronic journal of science of the environment, 13(3), posted on december 30, 2013, viewed on october 18, 2017. URL : http://vertigo.revues.org/14519 ; DOI : 10.4000 / vertigo.14519; 46p.