8th International Science Congress (ISC-2018).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Banana peel as an inexpensive carbon source for microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biotechnology, REVA University, Rukmini Knowledge Park, Kattigenahalli, Bangalore- 560064, India
  • 2Parul Institute of Applied Sciences (PIAS), Parul Unviersity, Post Limda, Vadodara, Waghodia, Gujarat- 391760, India

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 7, Issue (1), Pages 28-36, January,22 (2018)


Polluted soil and water samples were used to isolate fourteen different bacterial isolates out of which four bacteria showed the ability to produce Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Banana peel was added to the media in different ratios as a sole carbon source. Polymer producers determined using 16s rRNA studies were found to be Staphylococcus aureus JH1, Geobacillus stearothermophilus R- 35646, Bacillus subtilis JCM 1465 and Bacillus siamensis PD- A10. Cupriavidus necator a reference bacterium for PHA production served as a positive control and the results obtained were 79.73%, 75.94% and 74.69% with C: N ratio of 3:1, 1:1 and 4:1 respectively upto 96hours of incubation. Geobacillus stearothermophilus R- 35646 produced 84.63%, 71.58% and 62.68% of PHA with 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 C:N ratios respectively upto 96hours of incubation. Bacillus subtilis JCM 1465 accumulated 71.78% and 62.23% of PHA with 4:1 and 3:1 C:N ratios respectively at 24hours of incubation. Bacillus siamensis PD- A10 accumulated 77.55% at 24hours, 69.70% at 72hours and 65.75% at 72hours of incubation with 3:1, 3:1 and 4:1 C:N ratios respectively. While Staphylococcus aureus JH1 showed PHA accumulation of about 70.02% at 24hours and 52.74% at 48hours of incubation with 2:1 and 4:1 C:N ratios respectively.


  1. Khandpur P., Jabeen T.E., Rohini L.V.K., Varaprasad Y. and Laxminarayana B. (2012)., Study on the Production, Extraction and Analysis of Polyhydroxylakanoate (PHA) from Bacterial Isolates., IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. (IOSRJPBS)., 1(1), 31-38.
  2. Marjadi D. and Dharaiya N. (2011)., Isolation, Screening and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria Utilising Edible Oil as Carbon Sources., J. Env. Res. Dev., 5(3), 764-772.
  3. Amass W., Amass A. and Tighe B. (1998)., A Review of Biodegradable Polymers: Uses, Current Developments in the Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Polyesters, Blends of Biodegradable Polymers and Recent Advances in Biodegradation Studies., Polym. Int., 47(2), 89-144.
  4. Ojumu T.V., Yu J. and Solomon B.O. (2004)., Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates, a bacterial biodegradable polymer., Afr. J. Biotechnol., 3(1), 18-24.
  5. Lakshmi S.R., Hema T.A., Raj T.D. and Starin S.T. (2012)., Production and Optimization of Polyhydroxyalkanoate from Rhizobium sp. present in root nodules., IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. (IOSRJPBS)., 3(2), 21-25.
  6. Kumari P. and Dhingra K.H. (2013)., Isolation and Characterization of PHB producing micro-organisms isolated from Root nodules of Leguminous Plants., Int. Quaterly J. Life Sci., 8(1), 109-113.
  7. Martinez G.A., Bertin L., Scoma A., Rebecchi S., Braunegg G. and Fava F. (2015)., Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from dephenolised and fermented olive mill wastewaters by employing a pure culture of Cupriavidus necator., Biochemical Engineering Journal, 97, 92-100.
  8. Aly M.M., Albureikan M.O., Rabey H.E. and Kabli S.A. (2013)., Effects of culture conditions on growth and poly β-hydroxybutyric acid production by Bacillus cereus MM7 isolated from soil samples from Saudi Arabia., Life. Sci. J., 10(4), 1884-1891.
  9. Aburas M.M.A. (2016)., Production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate from Pseudomonas putida MAO12 isolated from waste water sample., J. Am. Sci., 12(5), 107-112.
  10. Bhuwal A.K., Singh G., Aggarwal N.K., Goyal V. and Yadav A. (2014)., Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production and management of cardboard industry effluent by new Bacillus sp. NA10., Bioresources and Bioprocessing, 1(1), 9.
  11. Berlanga M., Montero M.T., Fernández-Borrell J. and Guerrero R. (2006)., Rapid spectrofluorometric screening of poly-hydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria from microbial mats., International Microbiology, 9(2), 95.
  12. Chaudhry W.N., Jamil N., Ali I., Ayaz M.H. and Hasnain S. (2011)., Screening for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacterial strains and comparison of PHA production from various inexpensive carbon sources., Annals of microbiology, 61(3), 623-629.
  13. Sav A.R., Mittal A.K., Thorat A.A., Dubey S. and Banerjee U.C. (2014)., A Comparative study on the production of PHA by three different Pseudomonas sp., Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 3(10), 940-954.
  14. Dubois M., Gilles K.A., Hammilton J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith F. (1956)., Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances, University of Minnesota., Anal. Chem., 26, 350.
  15. Krishnaveni S., Balasubramanian T. and Sadasivam S. (1984)., Sugar distribution in sweet stalk sorghum., Food chemistry, 15(3), 229-232.
  16. Kumar T., Singh M., Purohit H.J. and Kalia V.C. (2009)., Potential of Bacillus sp. to produce polyhydroxybutyrate from biowaste., Journal of applied microbiology, 106(6), 2017-2023.
  17. Yao J., Zhang G., Wu Q., Chen G.Q. and Zhang R. (1999)., Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas nitroreducens., Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 75(4), 345-349.
  18. Jacquel N., Lo C.W., Wei Y.H., Wu H.S. and Wang S.S. (2008)., Isolation and purification of bacterial poly (3-hydroxyalkanoates)., Biochemical Engineering Journal, 39(1), 15-27.
  19. Chee J.Y., Yoga S.S., Lau N.S., Ling S.C., Abed R.M.M. and Sudesh K. (2010)., Bacterially produced Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Converting Renewable Resources into Bioplastics., Appl. Microbiol Microb Biotechnol., 1395-1404.
  20. Santhanam A. and Sasidharan S. (2010)., Microbial Production of Polyhydroxy alkanoates (PHA) from Alcaligens spp. and Pseudomonas oleovorans using Different Carbon Sources., Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(21), 3144-3150.
  21. Shivakumar S. (2011)., Accumulation of Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) by Microbacterium barkeri DSM 20145., Turk. J. Biol., 36, 225-232.
  22. Preethi R., Sasikala P. and Aravind J. (2012)., Microbial Production and Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Utilizing Fruit Waste as a Substrate., Res. Biotechnol., 3(1), 61-69.
  23. Chaitanya K., Mahmood S.K., Rana K. and Sunil K.N. (2014)., Biotechnological production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Various Isolates: A Review., Int. J. Pharm Sci. Invent., 3(9), 01-11.
  24. Du G., Chen J., Yu J. and Lun S. (2001)., Continuous production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by Ralstonnia eutropha in a two-stage culture system., J. Biotechnol., 88, 59-65.
  25. Gowda V. and Shivakumar S. (2014)., Agrowaste-based Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production using Hydrolytic Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis IAM12077., Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 57(1), 55- 61.
  26. Yogesh C., Pathak B. and Fulekar M.H. (2012)., PHA- Production, Application and its Bioremediation in Environment., Int. Res. J. Env. Sci., 1(2), 46-52.
  27. Porwal S., Kumar T., Lal S., Rani A., Kumar S., Cheema S., Purohit J.H., Sharma R., Patel S.K.S. and Kalia C.V. (2008)., Hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate producing abilities of microbes from diverse habitats by dark fermentative process., Bioresour. Technol., 99, 5444-5451.
  28. Prasanna T., Babu A.P., Lakshmi D., Chakrapani R. and Rao Ramachandra C.S.V. (2011)., Production of Poly (3-hydroxybutyrates) by Bacillus species isolated from soil., J. Pharm. Res. Rev., 1, 15-18.