7th International Science Congress (ISC-2017).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Full carbon accounting: the case of ethanol

Author Affiliations

  • 1Látens Dimenzió Consultancy, Budakeszi, Hungary

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 6, Issue (10), Pages 32-41, October,22 (2017)

Abstract

Transport needs to be decarbonised, but the lack of a comprehensive carbon accounting framework prevents policy consensus. Policies are moving towards inclusion of indirect effects, but not yet in a comprehensive manner. The engine efficiency improvements of higher octane levels should be included in LCAs. Ethanol is both a fuel and a chemical. A framework of full carbon accounting is suggested. Illustrative calculations are presented for European ethanol. Results show that European ethanol is better than oil. Indirect land use change impacts appear entirely offset by fuel economy improvements. The ethanol portion in E10 (10% ethanol blended in petrol) may have less than one-third the climate footprint of petrol. Furthermore, ethanol in E20, expected in the next decade, may be carbon neutral, if appropriate High Octane Fuels regulations and policies are enacted.

References

  1. Union E. (2009), Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC., Official Journal of the European Union, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex%3A32009L0028
  2. Parliament E.U. (2009)., Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009., Official Journal of the European Union, 140, 88-113. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex% 3A32009L0030
  3. Leone T.G., Anderson J.E., Davis R.S., Iqbal A., Reese R.A., Shelby M.H. and Studzinski W.M. (2015)., The effect of compression ratio, fuel octane rating, and ethanol content on spark-ignition engine efficiency., Environ. Sci. Technol., 49(18), 10778-10789. dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est. 5b01420
  4. Speth R.L., Chow E.W., Malina R., Barrett S.R.H., Heywood J.B. and Green W.H. (2014)., Economic and Environmental Benefits of Higher-Octane Gasoline., Environ. Sci. Technol., 48(12), 6561-6568. doi: 10.1021/es405557p
  5. Van den Bos A. and Hamelinck C. (2014)., Greenhouse gas impact of marginal fossil fuel use., Ecofys. http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/ecofys-2014-ghg-impact-of-marginal-fossil-fuels.pdf
  6. Exergia E3M-Lab and COWI (2015)., Study on actual GHG data for diesel, petrol, kerosene and natural gas., Work order: ENER/C2/2013-643. https://ec.europa.eu/ energy/sites/ener/files/documents/Study%20on%20Actual%20GHG%20Data%20Oil%20Gas%20Final%20Report.pdf
  7. Oil Climate Index (2016)., Assessing Global Oils, : http://oci.carnegieendowment.org/, supply-chain Data accessed at 14 June 2016.
  8. Van Ittersum M.K., Cassman K.G., Grassini P., Wolf J., Tittonell P. and Hochman Z. (2013)., Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance—a review., Field Crops Research, 143, 4-17. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/ j.fcr.2012.09.009
  9. Hill N., Brannigan Ch., Smokers R., Schroten A., van Essen H. and Skinner I. (2012)., EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II., Final Report Appendix, 10. http://www.eutransportghg2050.eu/cms/. See also “Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050”, COM (2011) 112 final, European Commission. Brussels. http://ec.europa.eu/clima/ policies/ strategies/ 2050/index_en.htm
  10. Hill N. and Morris M. (2012)., Further development of the SULTAN tool and scenarios for EU transport sector GHG reduction pathways to 2050., Task 6 paper. www.eutransportghg2050.eu
  11. iLUC Directive (2015)., Directive (EU) 2015/1513 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 September 2015 amending Directive 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources., http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32015L1513
  12. Valin H., Peters D., van den Berg M., Frank S., Havlik P., Forsell N., Hamelinck C., Pirker J., Mosnier A., Balkovič J., Schmidt E., Dürauer M. and Fulvio F.D. (2015)., The land use change impact of biofuels consumed in the EU: Quantification of area and greenhouse gas impacts., Commonly referred to as the “Globiom report”. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/Final %20Report_GLOBIOM_publication.pdf
  13. Laborde D. (2011)., Assessing the Land Use Change Consequences of European Biofuel Policies., Final report, International Food Policy Research Institute, ATLASS Consortium. Commonly referred to as the IFPRI study.http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2011/october/tradoc_148289.pdf
  14. Geringer B., Spreitzer J., Mayer M. and Martin C. (2014)., Meta-analysis for an E20/25 technical development study – Task 2: Meta-analysis of E20/25 trial reports and associated data., https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ ener/files/documents/Meta-Analysis_ReportFinal.pdf
  15. Jung H., Shelby M., Newman C. and Stein R. (2013)., Effect of Ethanol on Part Load Thermal Efficiency and CO2 Emissions of SI Engines., SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), 456-469. DOI:10.4271/2013-01-1634
  16. Richardson C., Bernard F., Boreux S., Nissing C., Soleille S. and Girault N. (2013)., LCA in biofuel regulation, comparing the US and EU approaches., Presentation at The 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management in Gothenburg.
  17. Finkbeiner M. (2014)., Indirect land use change – Help beyond the hype?., Biomass and Bioenergy, 62, 218-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.01.024
  18. ePURE (2016)., European ethanol industry statistics unpublished as of yet., Data accessed at 14 June 2016. For details, see Supporting Information.