International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Charcoal Accessibility among Households in the Rural and Urban Areas of Trans-Nzoia and West-Pokot Counties, Kenya

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Natural Resource Management, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, KENYA
  • 2School of Natural Resource and Environmental Management, University of Kabianga P.O. Box 2030-20200 Kericho, KENYA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 5, Issue (6), Pages 30-40, June,22 (2016)


This study determined the accessibility of charcoal among households located in the rural and urban areas of Trans-Nzoia and West-Pokot Counties. The purpose was to provide scientific data for necessary interventions like formulation of appropriate policy to enhance sustainable charcoal accessibility. The study used cross-sectional research design and multi-stage sampling technique. Stratified random sampling strategy was employed in grouping households into rural and urban households. Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting Kacheliba and Kolongolo sub-locations to represent rural areas of West-Pokot and Trans-Nzoia respectively. Purposeful sampling strategy was used in selecting Makutano and Kitale towns to represent urban areas of West-Pokot and Trans-Nzoia correspondently. Systematic random sampling was used in selecting 91, 95, 78, and 91 households in Kacheliba, Kolongolo, Makutano and Kitale. Questionnaires, interviews and observation were used in data collection. Data was analyzed through Kruskal Wallis Test, and Chi-square test of association. Only information from households using charcoal was used in the analysis. The economic measures of charcoal accessibility used in the study were households’ monthly expenditure on charcoal, cost/Kilogram of charcoal, and budgetary allocation (%) on charcoal. Results indicated that average household monthly expenditure and cost/kg in Kacheliba were Kshs 1271.4 and Kshs 11.4 respectively. Average monthly budgetary allocation was 25.7% in Makutano. Common factors affecting charcoal accessibility were; land tenure system, government policies, cookstove technologies, and family size. Kruskal Wallis Test indicated that the mean ranks of charcoal average accessibility values between Kacheliba, Kolongolo, Makutano and Kitale were statistically significant [&


  1. Opurum C., Nweke C., Nwanyanwu C. and Nwachukwu M. (2015)., Kinetic Study on Biogas Production from Fish Pond Effluent co-digested with Cow dung in a Batch Bioreactor system., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(12), 1-7.
  2. Ganesh B. and Hanamantrao D. (2015)., Optimization of Physico-Chemical parameters for Biomethanation of Bagasse and Press mud Admixture., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 4(9), 16-20.
  3. Aquil A., Shadab K., Shadman H. and Tiwari G. (2014)., The Contemporary Scenario of Indian Renewable Energy Sector., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(11), 82-89.
  4. Singh M. and Singh P. (2014)., A Review of Wind Energy Scenario in India., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 3(4), 87-92.
  5. Das A. and Mondal C. (2016)., Biogas Production from Co-digestion of Substrates: A Review., Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., 5(1), 49-57 (2016)
  6. UN AGECC. (2010)., Energy for a Sustainable Future., Summary Report and Recommendations 28 April 2010, Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change, New York.
  7. Anjum A. (2012)., Biomass: Energy and Environmental Concerns in Developing Country., Int Res. J. Environment Sci. 1(1), 54-57.
  8. Njenga M., Karanja N., Munster C., Iiyama M., Neufeldt H., Kithinji, J. and Jamnadass, R. (2013)., Charcoal Production and Strategies to Enhance its Sustainability in Kenya., Dev Pract, 23(3), 359-371.
  9. GEF. (2013)., Africa will Import – not Export – Wood., Chevy Chase, Global Environment Fund.
  10. Neufeldt H., Langford K., Fuller J., Iiyama M. and Dobie P. (2015)., From Transition Fuel to Viable Energy Source: Improving Sustainability in the Sub-Saharan Charcoal Sector., ICRAF Working Paper No. 196. Nairobi, World Agroforestry Centre.
  11. Serrano-Medrano M., Arias-Chalico C., Ghilardi D. and Masera, O. (2014)., Spatial and Temporal Projection of Fuelwood and Charcoal Consumption in Mexico., Energy Sustain Dev, 19(2014) 39–46.
  12. Zulu L. and Richardson, B. (2013)., Charcoal, Livelihoods, and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa., Energy Sustain Dev., 17(2), 127-137.
  13. Iiyama M., Neufeldt H., Dobie P., Njenga, M., Ndegwa G. and Jamnadass R. (2014)., The Potential of Agroforestry in the Provision of Sustainable Woodfuel in sub-Saharan Africa., Curr Opin Environ Sustain, 2014(6), 138–147.
  14. Kenya Forestry Service (2013)., Analysis of the Charcoal Value Chain in Kenya., A Report Commissioned by the Kenya Forest Service, coordinated by the National REDD+ Coordinating Office and carried out by Camco Advisory Services (Kenya) Limited, Nairobi.
  15. Mumo M. (2011)., Kenya: Charcoal Prices Burn a Hole in Local Household Budgets., Daily Nation.
  16. Minang P. A., Van Noordwijk M., Freeman O. E., Mbow C., de Leeuw J. & Catacutan, D. (2015)., Climate-Smart Landscapes: Multifunctionality in Practice., World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
  17. Mutua J., Ngui D. and Mwakubo S. (2010)., A Comprehensive Study and Analysis on Energy Consumption Patterns in Kenya., A Synopsis of the Draft Final Report.
  18. Nyembe M. (2011)., An Econometric Analysis of Factors Determining Charcoal Consumption by Urban Households: The case of Zambia., Master’s Programme Degree Thesis No. 641, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Economics.
  19. Ajao A. (2011)., Econometric Analysis of Urban Charcoal Demand in Ogbomoso Metropolis., Rep Opinion., 3(9), 22-29.
  20. Vahlne N. and Ahlgren O. (2014)., Policy Implications for Improved Cook Stove Programs—a Case Study of the Importance of Village Fuel Use Variations., Energy Policy., 66, 484–495.
  21. Rosa G., Majorin F., Boisson S., Barstow C., Johnson M., Kirby M., Ngabo F., Thomas E. and Clasen T. (2014)., Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomized Controlled Trial In Rwanda., PLoS One, 9(3).