International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Biogas Production from Co-digestion of Substrates: A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, INDIA
  • 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 5, Issue (1), Pages 49-57, January,22 (2016)


Sustainable development is the projected demand of all nations at present. Only 20 percent of world’s primary energy requirement is met by renewable sources like solar and wind energy, hydropower, biomass, municipal and agri-wastes. Especially energy recovery from municipal and agri – wastes have gained importance due to two – fold reason: i. waste volume reduction, ii. energy recovery. The present review article focuses onto detailed aspects of some exhaustive research work in the field of energy generation by co-anaerobic digestion of several potential organic sources with cattle manure. Codigestion of substrates have been preferred over mono-digestion due to several benefits associated with it. Carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio has been identified as the key parameter for improving the digestion of substrates. The average C/N ratio of 20 – 30 has been stated as optimum for maximum yield of biogas and corresponding methane in it by almost all workers referenced below. Mostly, specific methane production, ultimate methane production, methane production rate has been determined for evaluating the co-digestion process. Improvement in C/N ratio, higher bio-degradability, effective volatile solids (VS) removal, eco-friendly sludge production has been regarded as merits of co-digestion process.


  1. Aragaw T. and Andargie M. et al. (2013)., Co-digestion ofcattle manure with organic kitchen waste to increasebiogas production using rumen fluid as inoculums, Int JPhys Sci, 8, 443-450.
  2. Goldemberg J. and Johansson TB (2004)., World energyassessment overview 2004 update., NewYork: UNDP. P.88.
  3. De Schamphelaire L. and Verstraete W. (2009)., Revivalof the biological sunlight†to†biogas energyconversion system, Biotechnology and bioengineering,103(2), 296-304.
  4. Rittmann B.E. (2008)., Opportunities for renewablebioenergy using microorganisms, Biotechnology andbioengineering, 100(2), 203-212.
  5. Edelmann W. and Baier U. et al. (2005)., Environmentalaspects of the anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW andagricultural wastes, Water Sci Technol, 52, 553-559.
  6. Carrère H. and Dumas C. et al. (2010)., Pretreatmentmethods to improve sludge anaerobic degradability: Areview, Journal of hazardous materials, 183(1), 1-15.
  7. Sonesson U. and BjĂrklund A. et al. (2000)., Environmental and economic analysis of managementsystems for biodegradable waste, Resources,conservation and recycling, 28(1), 29-53.
  8. Esposito G, Frunzo L, Liotta F, Panico A and Pirozzi F(2012)., BMP tests to measure the biogas production fromthe digestion and co-digestion of Complex organicsubstrates., Open J Environ Eng, 5, 1–8.
  9. Hartmann H. and MĂller H.B. et al. (2004)., Efficiency ofthe anaerobic treatment of the organic fraction ofmunicipal solid waste: collection and pretreatment., WasteManagement and Research, 22(1), 35-41.
  10. Nielsen H.B., Mladenovska Z., Westermann P. andAhring B.K. (2004)., Comparison of two stagethermophilic (680 C / 550 C) anaerobic digestion with onestage thermophilic (550 C) digestion cattle manure., Biotechnol. and Bioeng. 86(3), 291-300.
  11. Mata-Alvarez J, Mace S and Llabres P (2000),, Anaerobicdigestion of organic solid wastes. An overview ofresearch achievements and perspectives., BioresourTechnol, 74, 3–16.
  12. Cecchi F. and Traverso P.G. et al. (1988)., Comparison ofco†digestion performance of two differently collectedorganic fractions of municipal solid waste with sewagesludges., Environmental Technology, 9(5), 391-400.
  13. Rintala J.A. and Ahring B.K. (1994)., A two-stagethermophilic anaerobic process for the treatment ofsource sorted household solid waste., Biotechnologyletters, 16(10), 1097-1102.
  14. Pohland F.G. (1996)., Landfill bioreactors: fundamentalsand practice., Water quality international 9(1996), 18-22.
  15. Hamzawi N. and Kennedy K.J. et al. (1998)., Technicalfeasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludgeand municipal solid waste., Environmental Technology,19(10), 993-1003.
  16. Sosnowski P. and Wieczorek A. et al. (2003)., Anaerobicco-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction ofmunicipal solid wastes., Advances in EnvironmentalResearch, 7(3), 609-616.
  17. Hawkes D.L. (1980)., Factors affecting net energyproduction from mesophilic anaerobic digestion., Anaerobic digestion:[proceedings of the firstInternational Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, held atUniversity College, Cardiff, Wales, September1979]/edited by DA Stafford, BI Wheatley and DEHughes.
  18. Patil V.S. and Deshmukh H.V. (2015)., A review on codigestionof vegetable waste with organic wastes forenergy generation., International Research Journal ofBiological Sciences, 4(6), 83-86.
  19. Cuetos M.A.J. and Gomez X. et al. (2008)., Anaerobicdigestion of solid slaughterhouse waste (SHW) atlaboratory scale: influence of co-digestion with theorganic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)., Biochemical Engineering Journal, 40(1), 99-106.
  20. Cristancho D.E. and Arellano A.V. (2006)., Study of theoperational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urbansolid wastes., Waste management, 26(5), 546-556.
  21. Fujita M. and Scharer J.M. et al. (1980)., Effect of cornstover addition on the anaerobic digestion of swinemanure., Agricultural Wastes, 2(3), 177-184.
  22. Hills D.J. (1980)., Biogas from a high solids combinationof dairy manure and barley straw., Transactions of theASAE, 23(6), 1500-1504.
  23. Hashimoto A.G. (1983)., Conversion of straw–manuremixtures to methane at mesophilic and thermophilictemperatures., Biotechnology and bioengineering, 25(1),185-200.
  24. Fischer J.R. and Iannotti E.L. et al. (1983)., Production ofmethane gas from combinations of wheat straw andswine manure., Transactions of the ASAE (AmericanSociety of Agricultural Engineers), 26(2), 546-548.
  25. Kaparaju P. and Luostarinen S. et al. (2002)., Codigestionof energy crops and industrial confectionery byproductswith cow manure: batch-scale and farm-scaleevaluation., Water Science and Technology, 45(10), 275-280.
  26. Li Y. and Sasaki H. et al. (2002)., High-rate methanefermentation of lipid-rich food wastes by a high-solidsco-digestion process., Water Science and Technology,45(12), 143-150.
  27. Neves L. and R. r. Oliveira et al. (2009)., Co-digestion ofcow manure, food waste and intermittent input of fat., Bioresource Technology, 100(6), 1957-1962.
  28. Callaghan F.J. and Wase D.A.J. et al. (2002)., Continuousco-digestion of cattle slurry with fruit and vegetablewastes and chicken manure., Biomass and Bioenergy,22(1), 71-77.
  29. EdstrĂm M. and Nordberg Ă.k. et al. (2003)., Anaerobictreatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses atlaboratory and pilot scale., Applied biochemistry andbiotechnology, 109(1-3), 127-138.
  30. Cuetos MJ, Go´mez X, Otero M and Mora´n A (2010)., Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhousewaste (SHW): influence of heat and pressure pretreatmentin biogas yield. Waste Manage, 30, 1780–1789.
  31. Nielsen H.B. and Angelidaki I. (2008)., Strategies foroptimizing recovery of the biogas process followingammonia inhibition., Bioresource Technology, 99(17),7995-8001.
  32. Zhang P. and Zeng G. et al. (2008)., Anaerobic codigestionof biosolids and organic fraction of municipalsolid waste by sequencing batch process., Fuel processingtechnology, 89(4), 485-489.
  33. Hills D.J. and Roberts D.W. (1981)., Anaerobic digestionof dairy manure and field crop residues., AgriculturalWastes, 3(3), 179-189.
  34. Hashimoto A.G. (1986)., Ammonia inhibition ofmethanogenesis from cattle wastes., Agricultural Wastes,17(4), 241-261.
  35. LehtomĂki A. and Huttunen S. et al. (2007)., Laboratoryinvestigations on co-digestion of energy crops and cropresidues with cow manure for methane production: effectof crop to manure ratio., " Resources, Conservation andrecycling. 51(3), 591-609.
  36. Li X. and L. Li et al. (2009)., Anaerobic co-digestion ofcattle manure with corn stover pretreated by sodiumhydroxide for efficient biogas production., Energy andFuels, 23(9), 4635-4639.
  37. Zhang L., Lee Y.W. and Jahng D. (2011)., Anaerobic codigestionof food waste and piggery wastewater: focusingon the role of trace elements, Bioresour. Technol., 102,5048–5059
  38. Rong Ping L. and YaJun G. et al. (2011)., Characteristicsand anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen wastes., Kezaisheng Nengyuan/Renewable Energy Resources,28(1), 76-80.
  39. Wan C. and Zhou Q. et al. (2007)., Semi-continuousanaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activatedsludge and fat, oil and grease., Waste management, 31(8),1752-1758.
  40. Zhang R. and El-Mashad H.M. et al. (2007)., Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobicdigestion., Bioresource Technology, 98(4), 929-935.
  41. Zhang Y., Banks C.J. and Heaven S. (2012)., Codigestionof source segregated domestic food waste toimprove process stability., Bioresour. Technol., 114, 168–178.
  42. Sagagi B.S., Garba B. and Usman N.S. (2009)., Studieson biogas production from fruits and vegetable waste., Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(1), 115–118.
  43. Earnest V.P. and Singh L.P. (2013)., Biomethanation ofvegetable and fruit waste in co-digestion process., Int. J.of Emerg. Technol. and Advanced Eng., 3(6), 493-495.
  44. Voegeli Y. and Lohri C. et al. (2009)., Technical andbiological performance of the Arti compact biogas plantfor kitchen waste-Case study from Tanzania., Sardinia2009 Twelfth International Waste Management andLandfill Symposium October.
  45. Garcia-Peña E.I. and Parameswaran P. et al. (2011)., Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion processes ofvegetable and fruit residues: process and microbialecology., Bioresource Technology, 102(20), 9447-9455.
  46. Molinuevo-Salces B. and GĂłmez X. et al. (2013)., Anaerobic co-digestion of livestock and vegetableprocessing wastes: Fibre degradation and digestatestability., Waste management, 33(6): 1332-1338.
  47. Islam M. and Salam B. et al. (2009)., Generation ofbiogas from anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste.ICME-2009, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  48. Kim J.K. and Oh B.R. et al. (2006)., Effects oftemperature and hydraulic retention time on anaerobicdigestion of food waste., Journal of Bioscience andBioengineering, 102(4), 328-332.
  49. Alvarez R. and G. Lidén (2008)., The effect oftemperature variation on biomethanation at high altitude., Bioresource Technology, 99(15), 7278-7284.
  50. Kumar A. and Miglani P. et al. (2006)., Impact of Ni (II),Zn (II) and Cd (II) on biogassification of potato waste., Journal of Environmental Biology, 27(1), 61-66.
  51. Weiland P. (2005)., Results and bottlenecks of energycrop digestion plants—required process technologyinnovations In: Proceedings of energy crops and biogasworkshop., Available at publicationspublicnetherlinh.htm.
  52. Somayaji D. and Khanna S. (1994)., Biomethanation ofrice and wheat straw., World journal of microbiology andbiotechnology, 10(5), 521-523.
  53. Lehtoma¨ki A, Huttunen S and Rintala JA (2007),, Laboratory investigation on co-digestion of energy cropsand crop residues with cow manure for methaneproduction: effect of crop to manure ratio., ResourConserv Recycl, 51, 591–609.
  54. Callaghan F.J. and Wase D.A.J. et al. (1999)., Codigestionof waste organic solids: batch studies., Bioresource Technology, 67(2), 117-122.
  55. Ponsá S. and Gea T. et al. (2010)., Anaerobic codigestionof the organic fraction of municipal solid wastewith several pure organic co-substrates., Biosystemsengineering, 108(4), 352-360.
  56. Kuglarz M. and Mrowiec B. (2009)., Co-digestion ofmunicipal biowaste and sewage sludge for biogasproduction., University of Bielsko-Biala.
  57. GĂłmez X. and Cuetos M.J. et al. (2006)., Anaerobic codigestionof primary sludge and the fruit and vegetablefraction of the municipal solid wastes: conditions formixing and evaluation of the organic loading rate., Renewable energy, 31(12), 2017-2024.
  58. Bouallagui H. and Lahdheb H. et al. (2009)., Improvement of fruit and vegetable waste anaerobicdigestion performance and stability with co-substratesaddition., Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5),1844-1849.
  59. Yen H.W. and Brune D.E. (2007)., Anaerobic codigestionof algal sludge and waste paper to producemethane., Bioresource Technology, 98(1), 130-134.
  60. Nansubuga I. and Banadda N. et al. (2010)., Enhancementof biogas potential of primary sludge by co-digestionwith cow manure and brewery sludge., InternationalJournal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 8(4),86-94.
  61. Chandra R. and Takeuchi H. et al. (2012)., Methaneproduction from lignocellulosic agricultural crop wastes:A review in context to second generation of biofuelproduction., Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(3), 1462-1476.
  62. Weiland P. (2010)., Biogas production: current state andperspectives., Applied microbiology and biotechnology,85(4), 849-860.
  63. Weiland P. and Hassan E. (2001)., Production of biogasfrom forage beets., Proceedings of 9th world congress onanaerobic digestion.
  64. Labatut R.A. and Angenent L.T. et al. (2011)., Biochemical methane potential and biodegradability ofcomplex organic substrates., Bioresource Technology,102(3), 2255-2264.