International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Distribution of Gaseous Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Rural Environment of India

Author Affiliations

  • 1* National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur-440 020 (M.S.), INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 4, Issue (7), Pages 70-74, July,22 (2015)


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are considered as atmospheric contaminants due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. In the present study, 8 selected gaseous phase PAHs were determined in ambient air representing rural environment. The gaseous phase PAHs samples were investigated for quantification of selected PAHs in various seasons and possible sources of gaseous phase PAHs in rural environment. The samples were collected using a cartridge containing XAD-2 resin placed between layers of polyurethane foam (PUF) and analyzed by fluorescence technique. The seasonal variation in selected gaseous phase individual PAHs varied between 28-496.9 ng m-3 during winter, summer and post-monsoon season respectively. The concentration of gaseous phase PAHs was dominated by Phen, Anth and Flt. The gaseous phase concentration of PAHs were 3.9 and 5.1 times higher in winter as compared to summer and post-monsoon season respectively. The higher concentration winter may be due to higher emission from biomass burning, fuel used for cooking such as coal and kerosene and other heating activities to protect from cold winter. The three ring gaseous phase PAHs were predominant than four and five membered ring PAHs and contribution varied between74.9-93.9 % of selected PAHs. The ratio analysis studies showed that traditional fuel used for cooking purposes mainly wood, kerosene, coal and biomass burning are the major contributors in rural environment.


  1. Hashmi I., Kim J.G., Kim K.S. andPolyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones (Sihwa and Banwal) located in Ancity of the Korean Peninsula and their influence on lake,J. of Appl Sci. and Environ Mgmt.,Sharma A., Tyagi S.K., Kulshrestha D.Source Apportionment Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in New Delhi, India,Environ Sci., 4(6), 1140-1149Ravindra K., Sokhi R., and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsemission factor and regulation,2895-2921 (2008)
  2. Sharma A., Tyagi S.K., Kulshrestha D. Source Apportionment Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in New Delhi, India, Environ Sci., 4(6), 1140-1149
  3. Ravindra K., Sokhi R., and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission factor and regulation, 2895-2921 (2008)
  4. Ho K.F., Ho S.S.H., Lee S.C., Cheng Y., Chow J.C.,Watson J.G., Louie P.K.K.gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ShingMun Tunnel, Hong Kong,Environ., 43, 6343-6351 (2009)
  5. Soclo H.H., Garrigues P.H. and Ewald M., Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal marine sediments: Case studies in Cotonou (Benin) and Aquitaine (France) areas, Marine Pollut Bull., 40(5), 387-396 (2000)
  6. Kulkarni P. and Venkataraman C., Atmospheric polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India, Atmos Environ., 34, 2785-2790 (2000)
  7. Singh D.P., Gadi R. and Mandal T.K., Characterization of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsand trace metals composition of urban air in Delhi, India, Atmos Environ., 45, 7653-7663 (2011)
  8. Mohanraj R., Solaraj G. and Dhanakumar S., PM 2.5 and PAH Concentrations in Urban Atmosphere of Tiruchirappalli, India, Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol., 87, 330-335 (2011)
  9. Salve P.R., Wate S.R. and Krupadam R.J., Characterization and source identification of PM10 bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Semi-Arid region of India, Res. J. of Chem. Sci., 5(4), 7-12 (2015)
  10. Teymouri B., Fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis of waters from municipal waste sources. Thesis,Graduate School at the University of Missouri: Columbia (2007)
  11. Kulkarni K.S., Sahu S.K., Vaikunta Rao L., Pandit G.G. and Das N.L., Characterization and Sourceidentification of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Visakhapatnam, India, Intl Res J of Environ Sci., 3(11), 57-64 (2014)
  12. Rajput N. and Lakhani A., Particle associated Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Agra, Ind J of Radio and Space Phys., 38, 98-104 (2009)
  13. Kishida M., Imamura K., Takenaka N., Maeda Y., Viet P.H. and Bandow H., Concentrations of Atmospheric Polycyclic AromaticHydrocarbons in Particulate Matter and the Gaseous Phaseat Roadside Sites in Hanoi, Vietnam, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 81, 174-179 (2008)
  14. Zivkovic M., Stojanoviv J., Cvetkovic A., Tasic I.L.V., Stevanovic Z. and Grzetic, I., PAHs levels in Gas and particulate bound phase in schools at different locations in Serbia, Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng., 21(1), 159-167 (2015)