6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

The Advancing Dominance of Ageratum conyzoides L. and Lantana camara L. in a dry Tropical Peri-urban Vegetation in India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Botany, I. P. (Post-Graduate) College, Bulandshahr-203001, UP, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 2, Issue (11), Pages 88-95, November,22 (2013)


The growing significance of Lantana camara and Ageratum conyzoides in dry tropical peri-urban vegetation was investigated to assess their impact on vegetation structure and soils. While Ageratum occurred at about 85% of the sampled locations, Lantana was at only 26%. The phytosociological analysis of two Ageratum infested sites LTI (long-term recurrently infested) and STI (short-term infested) showed the presence of 46 angiospermic flora in total, distributed over 24 families (23 dicot and 1 monocot), 40 at LTI and 23 at STI. Ageratum and Cynodon dactylon were the leading dominants at both sites accounting for 57% at LTI and 70.3% at STI in terms of IVI. However, in terms of biomass contribution by Ageratum alone, it accounted for 70.8% of total plant biomass at LTI and 82.9% at STI site. The similarity between the plant communities at these two sites in terms of Sorenson index was 0.63. The soils at LTI site showed higher moisture content, total Nitrogen and Organic Carbon (%) compared to STI. However, available P, S, Zn, Fe, Mg, Cu and exch. K were comparable at both sites. Diversity was also higher at LTI site. The dominance-diversity curve of the plant communities at STI and LTI sites showed geometrical pattern of resource share. In conclusion, the structure of peri-urban vegetation, diversity and soils are greatly impacted by the invading species Lantana camara and Ageratum conyzoides in Indian dry tropics, by virtue of superior dry matter build-up capacity.


  1. Vitousek P. M., Mooney H. A., Lubchenco J. and Melillo J. M., Human domination of Earth's ecosystems, Science277, 494-499 (1997)
  2. Vitousek P. M., Aber J. D., Howarth R. W., Likens G. E., Matson P. A., Schindler D. W., Schlesinger W. H. and Tilman D. G., Human alteration of the global Nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences, Ecol Appl, 737-750 (1997)
  3. Vitousek P. M., Dantonio C. M., Loope L. L. and Westbrooks R., Biological invasions as global environmental change, American Scientist, 84, 468-478 (1996)
  4. Lodge D. M., Biological invasions - lessons for ecology, Trends Ecol Evol, 133-137. (1993)
  5. Chapin F. S., Zavaleta E. S., Eviner V. T., Naylor R. L., Vitousek P. M. and Reynolds H. L. et al, Consequences of changing biodiversity, Nature, 405, 234–242 (2000)
  6. Heywood P., Term papers and class presentations enhance critical thinking in biology, In: "Enhancing Critical Thinking in the Sciences” edited by L.W. Crow. Published by the Society for College Science Teachers, page 97 (1989)
  7. D'Antonio C. M., Vitousek P. M., Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst, 23, 63–87 (1992)
  8. Pattison R. R., Goldstein G. and Ares A., Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian rainforest species, Oecol117, 449–459 (1998)
  9. Smith M. D. and Knapp A. K., Physiological and morphological traits of exotic, invasive exotic, and native plant species in tallgrass prairie, Int. J. Plant Sci, 162, 785–7922001)
  10. Pysek P., Richardson D. M., Rejmanek M., Webster G., Williamson M. and Kirschner J., Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists, Taxon 53, 131-143 (2004)
  11. Gupta S., Narayan R., Species diversity in four contrasting sites in a peri-urban area in Indian dry tropics, Trop Ecol, 47(2), 229–241 (2006)
  12. Sharma G. P., Singh J. S. and Raghubanshi A. S., Plant invasions: Emerging trends and future implications, Curr Sci88, 726-734 (2005)
  13. Kowarik I., On the role of alien species in urban flora and vegetation, pp. 85-103, In: P. Pysek, K. Prach, M. Rejmanek and M. Wade (eds.) Plant Invasions: General Aspects and Special Problems. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, NL (1995)
  14. Sukopp H., On the early history of urban ecology in Europe, Preslia74, 373-393(2002)
  15. Gupta S. and Narayan R., Brick kiln industry in long-term impacts biomass and diversity structure of plant communities, Curr Sci, 99(1), 72–79 (2010)
  16. Gaur R. D., Flora of the District Garhwal North West Himalaya. TransMedia Srinagar (Garhwal),U.P., India (1999)
  17. Sharma L. K., Floristic Studies of District Bulandshahr and Morphological Studies of DesmodiumDesv. andAlysicarpusNeek. with Special Reference to Fruit Structure. Ph.D. Thesis.Meerut University, Meerut, India (1980)
  18. Curtis J. T. and McIntosh R. P., An upland forest continuum in the Prairie-forest boarder region of Wisconsin, Ecology32, 476-496 (1951)
  19. Risser P. G. and Rice E. L., Phytosociological analysis of Oklahma upland forest species, Ecology, 52, 940-945 (1971)
  20. Southwood T. R. E., Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Insect Population, ELBSedition, Cambridge (1978)
  21. Whittaker R. H., Communities and Ecosystems, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New York (1975)
  22. Clifford H. T. and Stephenson W., An Introduction to Numerical Classification, Academic Press, London (1975)
  23. Whittaker R. H., Evolution of species diversity in land communities, pp. 1-67, In: M.K. Hecht, W.C. Steere and B. Wallace (eds.) Evolutionary Biol, Volume 10. Plenum, New York (1977)
  24. Shannon C. E. and Weaver W., The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Urbana, III: Univ.Illinois Press (1949)
  25. Pielou E. C., Species diversity and pattern diversity in the study of ecological succession, J. Theor Biol10, 370-383 (1966)
  26. Berger W.H. and Parker F.L., Diversity of planktonic Foraminifera in deep sea sediments, Science168, 1345-1347 (1970)
  27. Simpson E. H., Measurement of diversity, Nature163, 688 (1949)
  28. Whittaker R. H., Evolution and measurement of species diversity, Taxon21, 213-251 (1972)
  29. Piper C.S., Soil and Plant Analysis, Interscience Publications Inc., New York (1944)
  30. Allen S.E., Grismshaw H.M. and Rowland A.P., Chemical analysis, In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology, Blackwell, Oxford, pp 285–344 (1986)
  31. .Thakur M. L., Ahmad M. and Thakur R.K., Lantana weed (Lantana camara var. aculeata Linn.) and its possible management through natural insect pests in India, Indian Forester, 118, 466-488 (1992)
  32. Aravind N. A., Rao D., Ganeshaiah K. N., Shaanker R. U. and Poulsen J. G., Impact of the invasive plant, Lantana camara, on bird assemblages at Malé Mahadeshwara Reserve Forest, South India, Trop Ecol, 51(2S), 325-338 (2010)
  33. Holm L., Doll J., Holm E., Pancho J. and Herberger J., World weeds: natural histories and distribution, John Wiley and Sons Inc, New York (1977)
  34. Cronk Q. C. B. and Fuller J. L., Plant Invaders, Chapman and Hall, London (1995)
  35. Day M. D., Wiley C. J., Playford J. and Zalucki M. P., Lantana: Current Management Status and Future Prospects, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra (2003)
  36. Chaudhary N., Lantana- A menace or friend? Sci Reporter, 48(11)54-57 (2011)
  37. Kohli R. K., Batish D. R., Singh H. P. and Dogra S. K., Status, invasiveness and environmental threats of three tropical American invasive weeds (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Lantana camara L.) in India, Biol Invas, 1501-1510 (2006) doi: 10.1007/s10530-005-5842-1
  38. Khuroo A. A., Reshi Z. A., Malik A. H., Weber E., Rashid I. and Dar G. H., Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations, Biol Invass14, 99-113 (2012)
  39. Batish D. R., Kaur S., Singh H. P. and Kohli R. K., Nature of interference potential of leaf debris of Ageratum conyzoides, Plant grow Regul, 57, 137-144 (2009) doi: 10.1007/s10725-008-9329-9
  40. Chaudhary N. and Narayan R., Exotic invasive Ageratum conyzoides L. in Indian dry tropics: A preliminary investigation of its biomass allocation pattern and plant traits, J. Plant Dev Sci, 5(3), 249-254 (2013)
  41. Meenakshisundaravalli V. and Paliwal K., Dry matter production and nitrogen dynamics in the semi-arid grazingland of Madurai, India, TropEcol38, 81-86 (1997)
  42. Sharma K. P., Chaturvedi R. K., Sharma K. and Bhardwaj S. M., Dominance and diversity of vegetation of polluted habitats around Sanganer, Jaipur, Trop Ecol42, 69-82 (2001)
  43. Foster M. A. and Stubbendieck J., Effects of the plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) on rangeland, J. Range Manag33, 74-78 (1980)
  44. Tilman D., Plant succession and gopher disturbance along an experimental gradient, Oecol (Berl.) 60, 285-292 (1983)
  45. McKinney M. L., Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation, Biosci52, 883-890 (2002)