5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Relative Study on Blood BTEX, Testosterone Hormone, Kidney and Liver Functions in Gasoline Station Workers, Thailand

Author Affiliations

  • 1 College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, THAILAND

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 1, Issue (5), Pages 48-53, December,22 (2012)

Abstract

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), usually referred to as BTEX. These compounds can affect human health upon its dose and time of exposures. VOCs are usually found in fuels and other solvents which commonly presented in the environment, however, little known about their effects on the endocrine system. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between blood BTEX and testosterone hormone, and kidney and liver functions of gasoline station workers. The results showed average blood benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-, p-xylene. o-xylene levels were 284.9, 201.3, 178.7, 35.9, 73.3 µg/L respectively. While average testosterone, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were 13.4 nmole/L, 11.8 mg%, 1.0 mg%, 26.0 U/L, 30.9 U/L and 71.8 U/L respectively. Blood testosterone level was inversely related to toluene, m-, p-xylene, o-xylene and total BTEX levels (Linear regression analysis, p0.05). In addition, testosterone level had strongly inverse-relationship to kidney function of BUN and creatinine (linear regression analysis, p0.05 and p0.01). In conclusion, this study supported that BTEX exposures were chronically affected the decreasing of testosterone level in reproductive system as well as to kidney function.

References

  1. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, TLVs® and BEIs® based on the documentation of the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices, ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH (2010)
  2. US EPA, Benzene (noncancer effects) (CAS No. 71-43-2) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC (2002)
  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Toluene (Update), US Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (1994)
  4. US EPA, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Toluene, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC (1999)
  5. US EPA, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on Ethylbenzene, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC (1999)
  6. ATSDR, Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene (Update), Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (1999)
  7. National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethylbenzene (CAS No. 100-41-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies), TR No. 466. Bethesda, MD: US, Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health (1999)
  8. US EPA, Toxicological Review of Xylenes (CAS No. 1330-20-7). In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). US Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC. Available from: http:// www.epa.gov/ iris/toxreviews /0270tr.pdf. (2003)
  9. Ansari A., Biomass: Energy and Environmental Concerns in Developing Country,I Res. J. Environment Sci. 1(1), 54-57, (2012)
  10. Syed Ussain S., Sepuri S. and Buddolla V., Environment and Their Legal Issues in India, I. Res. J. Environment Sci.1(3), 44-51, (2012)
  11. Kukucka Mark A. and Misra Hara P. HPLC determination of an oxytocin-like peptide produced by isolated guinea pig Leydig cells: stimulation by ascorbate, Arch. Androl., 29(2), 185–90 (1992)
  12. Khalid A., Structure and Function of Testosterone. Demand Media, Inc, Available from: http://www.ehow.com/about _6869171_ structure-function testosterone.html#ixzz1t8RT2wkA (1999-2012)
  13. Aphrodite Women’s Health, Testosterone in women, Available from: http://www.aphroditewomenshealth.com /news/20020311214759_health_news.hml (2002)
  14. Reutman S.R., LeMasters G.K., Knecht E.A., Shukla R., Lockey J.E., Burroughs G.E. and Kesner J.S., Evidence of reproductive endocrine effects in women with occupational fuel and solvent exposures, Environ. Health Perspect.,110, 805-811 (2002)
  15. Pérez-Cadahía B., Lafuente A., Cabaleiro T., Eduardo Pásaro E., Méndez J. and Laffon B., Initial study on the effects of Prestige oil on human health, Environ. Int., 33(2), 176-185 (2007)
  16. Porte C., Janer G., Lorusso L. C., Ortiz-Zarragoitia M., Cajaraville M. P., Fossi M. C. and Canesi L., Endocrine disruptors in marine organisms: Approaches and perspectives, Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol., 143, 303–315 (2006)
  17. Tunsaringkarn T., Choochat N. and Theppitaksak B., Headspace – Solid Phase Microextraction for determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and mtbe in blood, Thai J Health Res., 18(1), 49-59 (2004)
  18. Ryan S. M, Goldberger A. L., Pincus S. M., Mietus J. and Lipsitz L. A., Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?,J Am Coll Cardiol., 24, 1700-1707 (1994)
  19. ACGIH, Threshold Limit Values and Biological Indices, ed, Cincinnati, OH (2001)
  20. De Maddalena C., Vodo S., Petroni A. and Aloisi A.M., Impact of testosterone on body fat composition. J Cell Physiol., Wiley Periodicals, Inc. doi: 10.1002/jcp.24096 (2012)
  21. Shiels M.S., Rohrmann S., Menke A., Selvin E., Crespo C.J., Rifai N., Dobs A., Feinleib M., Guallar E. and Platz E.A., Association of cigarette smoking, alco holconsumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone levels in US men, Cancer Causes Control.,20, 877–886 (2009)
  22. NIOSH, Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Ethyl Benzene. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, Technical Information Branch (1991)
  23. Snyder R., Witz G. and Golstein B.D., The toxicology of benzene, Environ. Health Perspect., 100, 293-306 (1993)
  24. Golding B.T. and Watson W.P., Possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis after exposure to benzene, IARC Scientific Publications,150, 75-88 (1999)
  25. Fabaini R., De Bartolomeo P., Rosigonoli M., Scamosci, Lepore L. and Morozzi G., Influence of culture condition on the DNA-damaging effect of benzene and its metabolites in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 37, 1-6 (2001)
  26. Tunsaringkarn T., Suwansaksri J., Soogarun S., Siriwong W., Rungsiyothin A., Zapuang K., Robson M., Genotoxic monitoring and benzene exposure assessment of gasoline station workers in metropolitan Bangkok: sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 12(1), 223-227 (2011)
  27. Muraoka K., Effects of Testosterone Replacement on Renal Function and Apoptosis on Mesangial and Renal Tubule Cells in Rats, Yonago Acta medica., 41, 37–44 (2001)
  28. Fischer G.M., Bashey R.I., Rosenbaum H. and Lyttle C.R., A possible mechanism in arterial wall for mediation of sex difference in atherosclerosis, Exp. Mol. Pathol., 43, 288–296 (1985)
  29. Franchimont P. and Bassleer C., Effects of hormones and local growth factors on articular chondrocyte metabolism, J. Rheumatol., 18, 68–70 (1991)
  30. Leitman D.C., Benson S.C., and Johnson L.K., Glucocorticoids stimulate collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells,J. Cell Biol., 98, 541–549 (1994)
  31. Silbiger S. and Neugarten J., The impact of gender on progressive renal functional impairment, Am. J. Kidney Dis., 25, 515–33 (1995)