5th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Heavy Metal Assessment of Leachates of some Plastic Toys Purchased from Different Districts of UP, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Integral University, Lucknow, INDIA
  • 2 Analytical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, M.G. Marg, Lucknow, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 1, Issue (4), Pages 32-36, November,22 (2012)

Abstract

Childhood exposure to environmental heavy metals continues to be a major health concern. This study examined heavy metal content within the plastic children’s toys purchased from local markets of different districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The six different colours of toys; yellow six brands, orange five brands, green three brands, red and blue four brands, grey and purple five brands and pink and purple three brands used in present study for the determination of concentrations of heavy metals as per BIS, IP and other international guidelines by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the presence of metals were in the range of 0.219-1.12, 0.005-0.110, 0.251-1.090, 0.119-1.111, 0.219-1.040, 0.000-0.531 and 0.990-1.070 (ppm) for Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and Mn respectively. A comparison of the mean concentrations of these metals in the toys analysed showed the pattern as: Pb > Zn > Ni > Mn > Cr > Co > Cd.

References

  1. Linsinger T., Liebich A., Przyk E.and Lamberty A.The certification of the mass fraction of, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Cr, Hg, Pb, S and Sb and the assignment of indicative values for Sn and Zn in two polyethylene reference material, Report EUR 22784 EN, (2007)
  2. Abhay K. and Prashant P., Lead and Cadmium in Soft Plastic Toys, Current Sci., 45, 2055-2056 (2007)
  3. Kelly M., Watson P., Thorton D. and Halpin T.J., Lead intoxicationassociated with chewing plastic wire coating,Morbidity Mortality Wkly Rep., 42, 465-467 (1993)
  4. Seralathan K.K., Prabhu, D.B. and Kui J.L., Assessment of heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) in water, sediments and seaweed (Ulva lactuca) in the Pulicat Lake, South East India, Chemos., 71(7),1233-1240 (2008)
  5. Ahiamadjie H., Adukpo O.K., Tandoh J.B, Gyampo O., Nyarku M., Mumuni I.I., Agyemang O., Ackah M., Otoo, F. and Dampare S.B., Determination of the elemental contents in soils around diamond cement factory, Aflao, Res. J. Environ. EarthSci., 3(1), 46-50 (2011)
  6. Gidlow D.A., Lead toxicity, Occup Med54,76–81(2004)
  7. Duffus J.H., Heavy metals: A meaningless term?, IUPAC Technical Report Pure Appl .Chem ,74, 793807 (2002)
  8. WorldNet Daily News, China Exports Lead Poisoning, http://www.worlnetdaily.com/news/article (2009)
  9. Markowitz G. and Rosner D., Cater to the children, the role of the lead industry in a public health tragedy, 1900–1955, Am J Public Health,90, 36–46 (2000)
  10. Fels L., Wunsch M., Baranowski J., Norska-Borowka I., Price R., Taylor S. et al, Adverse effects of chronic low level lead exposure on kidney function- a risk group study in children, Nephrol Dial Transplant, 13, 2248–2256 (1998)
  11. Bearer C., How are children different from adults?,Environ Health Prospect,103, 7–12 (1994)
  12. National Referral Centre for Lead Poisoning in Indian, http://www.tgfwotld.org/lead.htlm (2009)
  13. UNEP Chemicals, Interim Review of Scientific Information on Cadmium and Lead, Retrieved October 2010, http://www.unepchemicals.ch/pb_and_cd/SR/Files /Interim_reviews/U NEP_Cadmium_review_Interim, 46(2006)
  14. IARC. Cadmium and cadmium compounds. In: Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury and Exposure in the Glass Manufacturing Industry, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Lyon,International Agency for Research on Cancer, 58, 119–237(1993)
  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Atlanta (ATSDR), Toxicological Profile for Lead. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Agency for Toxicology and Environmental Medicine/Applied Toxicology Branch 600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop F 32 Atlanta, Georgia 30333, 29-31 (2005)
  16. Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Roels H., Bernard A., Bruaux P., Claeys F., Ducoffre G., DePlaen P., Staessen J., Amery A., Lijnen P., Thijs L., Rondia D., Sartor F., Saint Remy A. and Nick L., Renal effects of cadmium body burden of the general population, Lancet, 336, 699–702 (1990)
  17. Jarup L., Hellstrom L., Alfven T., Carlsson M.D., Grubb A., Persson B. et al. Low level exposure to cadmium and early kidney damage, the OSCAR study, Occup Environ Med, 57, 668–72 2000)
  18. Fosmire G.J. and Zinc toxicity, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition51(2), 225–7 (1990)
  19. Bothwell, Dawn N., Mair, Eric A., Cable, Benjamin B., Chronic Ingestion of a Zinc-Based Penny, Pediatrics111(3), 689–91 (2003)
  20. Oberg, Bo, J. S., Oxford Conquest of viral diseases, a topical review of drugs and vaccines, Elsevier, p142. ISBN 0-444-80566-4 (1985)
  21. A report of global healing center. www.globalhealingcentre.com/ (2012)
  22. Cersosimo M.G. and Koller W.C., The diagnosis of manganese-induced parkinsonism, NeuroToxicology,27,340–346 (2007)
  23. U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) Staff Report on Lead and Cadmium in Children’s Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Products, (1997)
  24. Joseph A., Greenway, Shawn Gerstenberger, An Evaluation of Lead Contamination in Plastic Toys Collected from Day Care Centers in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol , 85, 363–366 DOI 10.1007/s00128-010-0100-3 (2010)
  25. Srivastava S.P., Saxena A.K., Seth P.K., Safety evaluation of some of the commonly used plastic materials in India, Indian J Environ Health 26(4), 346–354(1984)