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Impact of Dye Industrial Effluent on Physicochemical Characteristics of Kshipra River, Ujjain City, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1 SS in Environment Management, Vikram University, Ujjain, MP, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Botany, PMB Gujarati Science College, Indore, MP, INDIA
  • 3

Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., Volume 1, Issue (2), Pages 41-45, September,22 (2012)


The wastewater has greatest potential for polluting the receiving water. River Kshipra is one of the sacred Indian rivers is being polluted by effluents discharged from Bhairavgarh dye industries. The most common textile processing unit consists of desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing and dyeing process. The present study was an attempt for assessment of water quality being polluted by effluents. Selected parameters include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total alkalinity, total hardness and chloride content. These were monitored in the untreated effluent and receiving watershed (River Kshipra) following standard protocol. High levels were observed in COD (73-345 mg/l), pH (7.6-9), TS (2100-6050 mg/l), TDS (1990-5820 mg/l), DO (0-8 mg/l), total hardness (321-880 mg/l), which exceeds the standard levels of BIS and world health organization (WHO). The study revealed that there was an adverse impact on physicochemical characteristics of river Kshipra as a result of directly discharge of untreated effluents from Bhairavgarh dye industries. This poses a health risk to several rural communities which rely on the receiving water bodies primarily as their source of domestic water.


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