Dietary replacement of artificial feed with bioflocs cultured from aquaculture waste water and its beneficial effect on the growth of fingerlings of Cirrhinus mrigala
- 1Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, (J&K), India
- 2Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, (J&K), India
- 3Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, (J&K), India
- 4Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, (J&K), India
Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 8, Issue (7), Pages 1-8, July,10 (2019)
Biofloc technology, the new blue revolution in aquaculture works with minimum or zero water exchange and recycling of nutrients. It converts the nitrogen present in aquaculture waste into microbial flocs which have great nutritional value and act as natural fish food. The bioflocs thus formed can partially or completely replace artificial feed in aquaculture. In the present investigation, the growth performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings was analysed by replacing commercial feed with bioflocs along with some physicochemical parameters viz. temperature, pH, DO, FCO2, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. A 90-day experiment was conducted in tubs having 60 litre capacity, each stocked with 15 fingerlings. The experimental unit consisted of four sets which were provided with different diets having artificial feed @ 2% body weight (Control), 50% artificial feed and 50% bioflocs (Treatment I), 100% bioflocs cultured externally (Treatment II) and 100% in-situ bioflocs grown along with fishes in the same system (Treatment III). The growth of fingerlings was analysed in terms of mean weight gain, percent weight gain and specific growth rate. The results showed maximum growth of fingerlings in Treatment III and minimum in Control thereby revealing that artificial feed in the diet of C.mrigala can be replaced by bioflocs.
- FAO (2000)., The state of world fisheries and aquaculture., FAO, Rome, Italy.
- Pillay T.V.R. (1990)., Aquaculture principles and practices., Fishing News Book. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd., Oxford, UK pp., 575.
- Engin K. and Carter C.G. (2005)., Fish meal replacement by plant and animal by-products in diets for the Australian short finned eel, Anguilla australis australis., Aquacul. Res., 36, 445-454.
- Olvera Novoa M.A., Martinez Palacios C.A. and Olivera Castillo L. (2002)., Utilization of torula yeast as a protein source in diet for Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fry., Aquaculture Nutrition, 8(4), 257-264.
- Avnimelech Y. (1999)., C/N ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems., Aquaculture, 176, 227-235.
- APHA (1985)., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water (16th ed.)., American Public Health Association., Washington DC.
- Shakir H.B., Qazi J.I., Chaudhry A.S., Hussain A. and Ali S. (2013)., Nutritional comparison of three fish species co-cultured in an earthen pond., Biologia (Pakistan), 59 (2), 353-356.
- Krishna C. and van Loosdrecht M.C.M. (1999)., Effect of temperature on storage polymers and settleability of activated sludge., Water Research, 33, 2374-2382.
- Wilen B.M. and Balmer P. (1999)., The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the structure, size and size distribution of activated sludge flocs., Water Resource, 33(2), 391-400.
- Van Wyk P. and Scarpa J. (1999)., Water quality requirements and management., Farming marine shrimp in recirculating freshwater systems, 141-162.
- Wurts W.A. and Durborow R.M. (1992)., Interactions of pH, Carbon Dioxide, Alkalinity and Hardness in Fish Ponds Southern Regional Aquaculture Center., SRAC Publication No. 464.
- Das B.K., Singh M. and Grieken R.V. (1995)., The elemental chemistry of sediments in the Nainital lake, Kumaun Himalaya, India., Sci. Total. Env., 168, 85-90.
- Bhatnagar A., Jana S.N., Garg S.K., Patra B.C., Singh G. and Barman U.K (2004)., Water quality management in aquaculture. In: Course Manual of summer school on development of sustainable aquaculture technology in fresh and saline waters., CCS Haryana Agricultural, Hisar, India, 203-210.
- Santhosh B. and Singh N.P. (2007)., Guidelines for water quality management for fish culture in Tripura., ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Center, Publishing no. 29.
- Kuhn D.D. and Lawrence A. (2012)., Ex-situ bioﬂoc technology. In: Avnimelech Y (ed.) Bioﬂoc Technology - A Practical Guide Book, 2nd edn., The World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, 217-230.
- Swingle H.A. (1967)., Standardization of chemical analysis for waters and pond muds., FAO Fishery Report, 4(44), 397-421.
- Banerjea S.M. (1967)., Water quality and soil condition of fish ponds in some states of India in relation to fish production., Indian Journal of Fisheries, 14, 115-144.
- Kuhn D.D., Boardman G.D., Addison L.L., Marsh L.C. and Flick G. (2010)., Microbial floc meal as a replacement ingredient for fish meal and soybean protein in shrimp feed., Aquaculture, 296, 51-57.
- Adhikari S. (2006)., Soil and water quality management in aquaculture. In: verma SA, Kumar AT, Pradhan S (eds).Handbook of fisheries and aquaculture., Indian Council of Agricultural research, New Delhi, 438-457.
- Tacon A., Cody J., Conquest L., Divakaran S., Foster I. and Decamp O. (2002)., Effect of culture system on the nutrition and growth performance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) fed different diets., Aquaculture Nutrition, 8, 121-137.
- Wasielesky Jr W., Atwood H., Stokes A. and Browdy C.L. (2006)., Effect of natural production in a zero exchange suspended microbial floc based super-intensive culture system for white shrimp., Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, 258, 396-403.
- Ebeing J.M. and Timmons M.B. (2006)., Understanding photoautotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic bacterial based systems using basic water quality parameters., 6th International conference on Recirculating Aquaculture, Roanoke, Virginia, USA July 21-22, 270-279.
- Meade J.W. (1985)., Allowable ammonia for fish culture., Progressive Fish Culture, 47(3), 135-145.
- Stone N.M. and Thomforde H.K. (2004)., Understanding Your Fish Pond Water Analysis Report., Cooperative Extension Program, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Aquaculture / Fisheries.
- Luo G., Gao Q., Wang C., Liu W., Sun D. and Li L. (2014)., Growth, digestive activity, welfare, and partial costeffectiveness of genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system and an indoor biofloc system., Aquaculture, 422, 1-7.
- Soltan M.A., Abdella M.M., El-Sayeed G.A. and Abu-El Wafa M.H. (2015)., Effects of some over-wintering regimes on survival and growth performance of Nile Tilapia. Oreochromis niloticus., Biological and Chemical Research, 2, 362-374.
- Liao S.A., Zheng G.L., Wang A.L., Huang H. and Sun R. (2006)., Isolation and characterization of a novel aerobic denitrifier from shrimp pond., Acta Ecol. Sin, 26(11), 3018-3724.
- Kim M., Jeong S.Y., Yoon S.J., Cho S.J., Kim Y.H., Kim M.J., Ryu E.Y. and Lee S.J. (2008)., Aerobic denitrification of Pseudomonas putida AD-21 at different C/N ratios., J Biosci. Bioeng., 106, 498-502.
- Da Silva K.R., Wasielesky W. and Abreu P.C. (2013)., Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the biofloc production of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)., J. World Aquac. Soc. 44, 30-41.
- Liu L., Hu Z., Dai X. and Avnimelech Y. (2014)., Effects of addition of maize starch on the yield, water quality and formation of bioflocs in integrated shrimp culture system., Aquaculture, 418-419, 79-86.
- Wang G., Yu E., Xie J., Yu D., Li Z., Luo W. and Zheng Z. (2015)., Effect of C/N ratio on water quality in zero-water exchange tanks and the biofloc supplementation in feed on the growth performance of crucian carp, Carassius auratus., Aquaculture, 443, 98-104.
- Yuniartik M., Hariata A.M. and Fadjar M. (2015)., Effect of biofloc on feed efficiency and growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1932)., Journal of life science and biomedicine, 5(3), 70-74.
- Nurhatijah N., Muchlisin Z.A., Sarong M.A. and Supriatna A. (2016)., Application of biofloc to maintain the water quality in culture system of the tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon)., Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 9(4), 923-928.
- Emerenciano M., Ballester E.L., Cavalli R.O. and Wasielesky W. (2011)., Effect of biofloc technology (BFT) on the early postlarval stage of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis: growth performance, floc composition and salinity stress tolerance., Aquaculture International, 19(5), 891-901.
- Xu W.J., Pan L.Q., Sun X.H. and Huang J. (2013)., Effects of bioflocs on water quality and survival, growth and digestive enzyme activities of Litopennaeus vannamei (Boone) in zero water exchange culture tanks., Aquaculture Research, 44(7), 1093-1102.
- Khatoon H., Banerjee S., Yuan G.T.G., Haris N., Ikhwanuddin M., Ambak M.A. and Endut A. (2016)., Biofloc as a potential natural feed for shrimp post larvae., International biodeterioration and biodegradation, 113, 304-309.
- Mahanand S.S., Moulick S. and Rao P.S. (2013)., Optimum formulation of feed for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) with biofloc as a component., Aquaculture International, 21(2), 347-360.
- Ogello E.O., Musa S.M., Aura C.M., Abwao J.O. and Munguti J.M. (2014)., An appraisal of the feasibility of tilapia production in ponds using biofloc technology., International Journal of Aquatic Science, 5(1), 21-39.
- Schneider O., Sereti V., Eding E.H. and Verreth J.A.J. (2006)., Molasses as C source for heterotrophic bacteria production on solid fish waste., Aquaculture, 261, 1239-1248.
- Burford M.A., Thompson P.J., Mc Intosh P.R., Bauman R.H. and Pearson D.C. (2004)., The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system., Aquaculture, 232, 525-537.
- Kamilya D., Debbarma M., Pal P., Kheti B., Sarkar S. and Singh S.T. (2017)., Biofloc technology application in indoor culture of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) fingerlings: The effects on inorganic nitrogen control, growth and immunity., Chemosphere, 182, 8-14.
- Azim M.E. and Little D.C (2008)., The biofloc technology (BFT) in indoor tanks: Water quality, biofloc composition and growth and welfare of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)., Aquaculture, 283(1-4), 29-35.
- Faizullah M., Rajagopalsamy C.B.T., Ahilan B. and Francis T. (2015)., Impact of Biofloc Technology on the Growth of Goldfish Young Ones., Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(13), 1-8.
- Megahed M.E. and Mohamed K. (2014)., Sustainable growth of shrimp aquaculture through biofloc production as alternative to fishmeal in shrimp feeds., Journal of Aquaculture Science, 6(6), 176-188.
- Harini C., Rajagopalasamy C.B.T., Kumar J.S.S. and Santhakumar R. (2016)., Role of Biofloc in the Growth and Survival of Blue morph, Pseudotropheus saulosi., Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(8), 1-7.
- Khanjani M.H., Sajjadi M.M., Alizadeh M. and Sourinejad I. (2016)., Study on nursery growth performance of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) under different feeding levels in zero water exchange system., Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science, 15(4), 1465-1484.