International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Determination of LC50 of Lead Nitrate for a fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan)

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 4, Issue (8), Pages 23-26, August,10 (2015)


The contamination of water by heavy metals is a worldwide problem which is increasing day by day due to the anthropogenic activities. These heavy metals poses a serious health risk on human population and aquatic organisms. One such heavy metal is Lead. This paper emphasises on the determination of 96hr LC50 value ofLead Nitrate for the fish, Labeo rohita. The acute toxicity test was performed according to the standard methods in APHA and the value was calculated by probit analysis. The fish specimens were acclimatized in the laboratory conditions for 15 days. The stock solution of Lead Nitrate was prepared and the fish fingerlings were treated with various concentrations ranging from 1 mg/l to 50 mg/l for 96 hours. The results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of Lead Nitrate for the fish, Labeo rohita is 34.20 mg/l. The susceptibility of Labeo rohita to the lethal effect of Lead Nitrate were dependent on duration as well as on concentration. The mortality of the fishes is directly proportional to the concentration. The use of Lead should be discouraged to protect valuable biodiversity.


  1. Lopes P.A., Pinheiro T., Santos M.C., Mathias M., Collares-Pereira M.J. and Viegas-Crespo A.M., Response of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater fish populations Leuciscusalburnoides complex) to inorganic pollutant exposure, Sci. Tot. Environ., 280, 153-163 (2001)
  2. Williams N.D. and Holdway D.A., Effect of pulse-exposed cadmium and zinc on embryo hatchability, larval development and survival of Australian crimson spotted rainbow fish (Melanotaeniafluviatilis), Environ. Toxicol., 15, 165-173 (2000)
  3. Olaifa F.E., Olaifa A.K., Adelaja A.A. and Owolabi A.G., Heavy metal contamination of Clariasgariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nig. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 7,145-148 (2004)
  4. Chen C.Y. and Folt C.L., Bioaccumulation and diminution of arsenic and lead in a freshwater food web, Environ. Sci. & Technol., 34, 3878-3884 (2000)
  5. Canli M. and Atli G., The relationship between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species, Environ. Pollut., 121, 129-136 (2003)
  6. Yilmaz A., Turan C., and Toker T., Uptake and distribution of hexavalent Cr in tissues (gill, skin and muscle) of a freshwater fish, tilapia, Oreochromisaureus, . Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol., 28-33 (2010)
  7. Sorensen E.M., Metal poisoning in fish. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA., 243 (1991)
  8. Heath A.G., Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, (1995)
  9. Ciftci-Soyedemir N., Cicik B., Erdem C. and Ay O., Effects of lead concentrations on sera parameters and hematocrit levels in Anguillaanguilla L., 1758, J. Fish. Sci. Com., 2(4), 616-622 (2008)
  10. Reglero M.M., Taggart M.A., Monsalve-Gonzalez I. and Mateo, R. Heavy metal exposure in large game from a lead mining area: effects on oxidative stress and fatty acid composition in liver, Environ. Pollut., 157, 1388-1 (2009)
  11. Abdallah G.M., El-Shayed S.M. and Abo-Salem O.M., Effect of lead toxicity on coenzyme Q levels in rat tissues, Food. Chem. Toxicol., 48, 1753-1756 (2010)
  12. Rout P.C. and Niak B.N., Quantitative precipitation tests for anti avidin during experimental plumbism in Clariasbatrachus, Linn. Asian resonance, 2(3), (2013)
  13. Dallas H.F. and Day J.A., The effect of water quality variables on riverine ecosystem. A review: Water Research Commission Report No., 351-360 (1993)
  14. Woodward D.F., Brumbaug W.G., Delonay A.J. and Smith C., Effects on rainbow trout of metals contaminants diet of benthic invertebrates from the Clark Fork river, Moutana, Trans. American fish. Soc., 23, 51-62 (1994)
  15. Mckim J.M., Evaluation of tests with early life stages of fish for predicting long term toxicity, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 34, 1148-1154 (1977)
  16. Phillips T.A., Wu J., Summerfelt R.C. and Atchinson G.J., Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in larval and early juvenile walleye exposed to chloropyrifos, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 21, 1469-1474 (2002)
  17. APHA, Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 22nd Edition. American Public Health Association. Washington D.C., (2012)
  18. Finney D.J, Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London/Newyork, 20-47 (1971)
  19. Latif A., Ali M., Sayyed A.H., Iqbal F., Usman K., Rauf M. and Kaoser R., Effect of copper sulphate and lead nitrate, administered alone or in combination, on the histology of liver and kidney of Labeorohita, Pak. J. Zool., 45(4), 913-920 (2013)
  20. Abdullah S., Javed M. and Javid A., Studies on acute toxicity of metals to the fish (Labeorohita), Int. J. Agri. Biol., 333-337 (2007)
  21. Javid A., Javed M. and Abdullah S., Nickel bioaccumulation in the bodies of Catlacatla, Labeorohitaand Cirrhinusmrigala during 96hr LC50 exposures. Int. J. Agri. Bio., 139-142 (2007)
  22. Adhikari S., Effect of calcium and magnesium hardness on acute copper toxicity to Indian major carp, Labeorohita(Hamilton) and catfish, Channapunctatus (Bloch), Aquacul. Res., 34, 975-980 (2003)
  23. Shamshun N., Chandan K., Kavita M. and Mamta K., Lead induced alteration in blood profile of air breathing catfish, Clariasbatrachus Linn. TheBioscan:, 2,(2010)
  24. Hamed N. and Esmail G., Determination of LC50 of lead nitrate and copper sulphate in common carp (Cyprinuscarpio), Amer. Eura. J. Toxicol. Sci.,4(2), 60-63 (2012)
  25. Das K.K. and Banerjee S.K., Cadmium toxicity in fishes, Hydrobiol., 75, 117-121 (1980)
  26. Shah S.L. and Altindu A., Effects of heavy metal accumulation on the 96hr LC50 values in tench, TincatincaL., 1758. Turk. J. vet. Anim. Sci., 29, 139-144 (2005)
  27. Witeska M., Jezierska B. and Chaber J., The influence of cadmium on common carp embryos and larvae, Aquaculture, 129, 129-132 (1993)
  28. Demayo A., Taylor M.C., Taylor K.W. and Hodson P.V., Toxic effects of lead and lead compounds on human health, aquatic life, wildlife plants and livestock, Critical reviews in environmental control., 12(4), 257-305 (1981)
  29. Hodson P.V., Whittle D.M., Wong P.T.S., Borgmann U., Thomas R.L., Chau Y.K., Nriagu J.O. and Hallet DJ., Lead contamination of the great lakes and its potential effects on aquatic biota. In: Nriagu J.O. and Simmons M.S. (eds), Toxic contaminants in the great lakes, John Wiley and Sons, Indianapolis (1984)
  30. Nussey G., Vuren V.J.H.J. and Prez H.H., Bioaccumulation of chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in the tissues of the moggel, (Labeoumbratus) from Witbank Dam. Mpumalanga, Water S.A.,26(2), 264-284 (2000)
  31. Martinez C.B.R., Nagae M.Y., Zaia C.T.B.V and Zaia D.A.M., Acute morphological and physiological effects of lead in the neotropical fish, Prochiloduslineatus, Braz. J. Biol., 64, 797-807 (2004)
  32. Witeska M. and Jezierska B., The effect of environmental factors on metal toxicity to fish, Fresenius. Environ. Bull., 12, 824-829 (2003)
  33. Mulley D., Kamble G.M. and Bhilave M., Effect of heavy metals on nucleic acids in Cyprinuscarpio, J. Environ. Bio., 21, 367-370 (2000)
  34. Yilmaz M., Gul A. and Karakose E., Investigation of acute toxicity and the effect of cadmium chloride metal salt on behaviour of the guppy (Poeciliareticulate), Chemospher, 56, 375-380 (2004)
  35. Dardenne F., Nobels I., De C. and Blust, R., Dose response relationships and statistical performance of a battery of bacterial gene profiling assays, Apps. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75, 223-234 (2007)
  36. Singh A., Jain D. and Kumar P., Determination of LC50 of cadmium chloride in Heteropneustesfossilis, GERF Bull. of Biosci., 21-24 (2010)