9th International Science Congress (ISC-2019).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Etiology, Risk Factors and Pathophysiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Dept. of Amraze Niswan wa Ilmul Qabalat (Gynecology and Obstetrics), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore - Karnataka, INDIA
  • 2Dept. of Amraze Niswan wa Ilmul Qabalat (Gynecology and Obstetrics), Yunus Fazlani Unani Medical College, Kunjkheda, MS, INDIA
  • 3Medical officer, State Govt. of Karnataka, INDIA
  • 4Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, Telangana, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 4, Issue (6), Pages 75-82, June,10 (2015)

Abstract

Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as any involuntary loss of urine. It is under-reported, undiagnosed, and often untreated medical situation for women at any age which highly impacts the quality of life. The risk factors for stress urinary incontinence in women are weak collagen, diabetes mellitus, advanced age, chronic obstructive airway disease, ethnicity, constipation,pregnancy and childbirth, obesity, advanced pelvic organ prolapse,hysterectomy, neurological disease, smoking, spinal cord trauma, and pelvic floor injury. The physiopathology is linked to endopelvic fascia, levator ani muscles, and muscular urethra compromise followed by pudendal nerve denervation and urethral complex’s loss of ligamentous support. The line of management for stress urinary incontinence is lifestyle change, physiotherapy of the pelvic floor, bulking agent and midurethral sling.

References

  1. Nadir NA and Silverberg MA., Urinary Incontinence, Available from URL: http://emedicine.medscape.com /article/778772-overview. [Accesed on 17-01-11], (2011)
  2. O Schorge J., Schaffer J.I., Halvorson L.M., Hoffman B.L., Bradshaw K.D. and Cunningham F.G, William’s Gynecology, New York: McGraw Hill, 512-22 (2008)
  3. Tamanini J.T., Dambros M., D'Ancona C.A., Palma P.C. and Rodrigues Netto N. Jr., Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form, (ICIQ-SF) for Portuguese, Rev. Saude. Publica., 38(3),438-44 (2004)
  4. Bakar Y., Cinar Ozdemir O. and Ozengin N. et al. The use of extracorporeal magnetic innervation for the treatmentof stress urinary incontinence in older women: a pilot study, Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.,284,163–1168. (2011)
  5. Langa K.M., Fultz N.H. and Saint S. et al., Informal care giving time and costs for urinary incontinence in older individuals in the United States, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc, 50,733 (2002)
  6. Herbruck L.F., Urinary Incontinence in the Childbearing Woman, Urol. Nurs.,28(3), 163-171 (2008)
  7. Vasavada S.P., Carmel M.E. and Rackley R., Urinary incontinence. Available from URL: http://emedicine .medscape. com/ article/452289-overview # aw2aab6b2b1aa. [Accessed on 17-2-13], (2013)
  8. Hunskaar S., Arnold EP. and Burgio K. et al., Epidemiology and natural history of urinary incontinence, Int Urogynecol.J. Pelvic. Floor. Dysfunct.,11, 301 (2000)
  9. Serati M. and Uccella S. and Salvatore S., Stress urinary incontinence in women of childbearing age,european.urological.review., 72-4 (2008)
  10. Flynn M., Amundsen C.L. and Perevich M. et al., Outcome of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trialofbotulinum: a toxin for refractory overactive bladder, J. Urol.,181(6), 2608–2615 (2009)
  11. Athanasopoulos A. and Perimenis P., Pharmacotherapy of urinary incontinence, Int. Urogynecol. J. Pelvic Floor. Dysfunct.,20(4), 475-82 (2009)
  12. Hunskaar S., Arnold E.P. and Burgio K. et al., Epidemiology and natural history of urinary incontinence, Int. Urogynecol. J. Pelvic Floor. Dysfunct.,11, 301-319 (2000)
  13. Diokno A.C., Burgio K. and Fultz N.H. et al., Medical and self-care practices reported by women with urinary incontinence, Am. J. Manag, Care., 10, 69-78 (2004)
  14. Felde G., Bjelland I. and Hunskaar S., Anxiety and depression associated with incontinence in middle-aged women: a large Norwegiancross-sectional study, Int. Urogynecol. J., 23(3), 299-306 (2012)
  15. Price D.M. and Noblett K., Comparison of the cough stress test and 24-h pad test in the assessment of stress urinary incontinence, Int. Urogynecol. J., 23(4), 429-33 (2012)
  16. Herbruck L.F., Stress Urinary Incontinence: Prevention, Management, and Provider Education, Urol, Nurs., 8(3),200-206 (2008)
  17. Kang Y., Phillips L.R. and Kim S.S., Incontinence Quality of Life among Korean-American Women, Urol, Nurs.,30(2), 130-136 (2010)
  18. Nygaard I.E., Stress Urinary Incontinence, Obstet. Gynecol., 104, 607–20 (2004)
  19. Magowan B.A., Owen P. and Drife J., Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2nded., New York: Saunders Elsevier, 175-80 (2009)
  20. Contreras O.O., Stress urinary incontinence in the gynaecological practice, Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet.,86Suppl 1, S6-16 (2004)
  21. Dwyer N.I., Stress urinary incontinence in women, Hospital physician board review manual, Urology., 13(1), 1-12 (2006)
  22. Arts-de Jong M., van Altena A.M. and Aalders C.I.M. at al, Improvement of sexual function after transobturator tapeprocedure in women with stress urinary incontinence, Gynecol. Surg.,8(3), 315–319 (2011)
  23. Kim C., McEwen L.N. and Sarma A.R. et al., Stress urinary incontinence in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus, J Women’s, Health, (Larchmt)., 17(5), 783-92 (2008)
  24. Hannestad Y.S., Rortveit G. and Daltveit A.K. et al., Are smoking and other lifestyle factors associated with female urinary incontinence?, The Norwegian EPINCONT Study, BJOG.,110, 247 (2003)
  25. Rortveit G, Daltveit A.K. and Hannestad Y.S. et al, Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section, N. Engl. J. Med.,348, 900 (2003)
  26. Berghmans L.C., Hendriks H.J and Bo K. et al, Conservative treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials, Br. J. Urol., 82(2), 181-91 (1998)
  27. Bent A.E., Gousse A.E. and Hendrix S.L. et al., Validation of a two-item quantitative questionnaire for the triage of women with urinary incontinence, Obstet. Gynecol.,106(4), 767-73 (2005)
  28. Rogers R.G., Leeman L.M. and Migliaccio L. et al., Does the severity of spontaneous genital tract trauma affect postpartum pelvic floor function?, Int. Urogynecol. J. Pelvic. Floor. Dysfunct.,19(3), 429-35 (2008)
  29. Onowhakpor E.A., Omo-Aghoja L.O. and Akani C.I. et al, Prevalence and determinants of utero-vaginal prolapse in southern Nigeria, Niger. Med. J., 50, 29-32 (2009)
  30. Bai S.W., Kang J.Y. and Rha K.H. et al., Relationship of urodynamic parameters and obesity in women with stress urinary incontinence, J. Reprod. Med., 47, 559 (2002)
  31. Deitel M., Stone E. and Kassam H.A. et al., Gynecologic-obstetric changes after loss of massive excess weight following bariatric surgery, J. Am. Coll. Nutr.,, 147 (1988)
  32. Flegal K.M., Carroll M.D. and Ogden C.L. et al., Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000, J.A.M.A., 288, 1723 (2002)
  33. De Lancey J.O.L., The pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence in women and its implications for surgical treatment, World. J. Urol., 15, 268-274 (1997)
  34. Vasavada S.P., Carmel M.E. and Rackley R., Urinary incontinence. Available from URL: http://emedicine. medscape.com/article/452289-overview #aw2aab6b 2b1aa. [Accessed on 17-02-13], (2013)
  35. Tsai Y.C. and Liu C.H., Urinary incontinence among Taiwanese women: an outpatient study of prevalence, comorbidity, risk factors, and quality of life, Int .Urol. Nephrol., 41(4), 795-803 (2009)
  36. Farrell S.A., Epp A. and Flood C.et al., The evaluation of stress incontinence prior to primary surgery, J. Obstet. Gynecol. Can., 25(4), 313–8 (2003)
  37. Mishell D.R., Goodwin T.M. and Brenner P.F., Management of Common Problems in Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA: Blackwell publishing, 287-9, 290 (2002)
  38. Viktrup L.A., Simpler algorithm for the management of women with UI: Stress/Urge Incontinence Questionnaire (S/UIQ), Medscape General Medicine, 7(3), 62 (2005)
  39. Blok B.F. and Corcos J., Surgery for stress urinary incontinence in women: A 2006 review, Indian. J. Urol., 23(2), 148–152 (2007)
  40. Freeman R.M., What's a 'cure'?, Patient-centred outcomes of treatments for stress urinary incontinence, Int. Urogynecol. J., 18(1), 13–8 (2007)
  41. Lose G, Sørensen HC and Axelsen SM. et al., An open multicenter study of polyacrylamide hydrogel (Bulkamid®) for female stress and mixed urinary incontinence, Int. Urogynecol. J., 21(12), 1471-7 (2010)