6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th May 2021 Due to COVID-19. 10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Adhesive Apparatus of Garra lissorhynchus (McClelland) of Meghalaya, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Zoology, St. Anthony’s College, Shillong-793001, Meghalaya, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 4, Issue (2), Pages 48-53, February,10 (2015)


Garra lissorhynchus(McClelland) also known as the “Khasi Garra” is a species of ray finned fish in the genus Garra. The species is commonly found inhabiting the torrential rivers in the Khasi Hills Districts of the state of Meghalaya in India, and thus the name “Khasi Garra”. The adhesive organ of this species was studied with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study revealed that the mouth of the fish is guarded with upper fringed labial fold or lip and lower lip that has been modified into the main adhesive organ or disc. The adhesive disc consists of crescent callous pad, modified labial fold and posterior free margin. Many tubercles bearing curved spines were observed on the lips and labial folds whereas, numerous mucous openings were observed on the callous pad. The study suggested that spines and mucous together help the fish attach firmly to substratum under strong water currents.


  1. Vishwanath W., Mahanta P.C., Anganthoibi N. and Sarma D., Coldwater fishes of India an Atlas. Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Bhimtal-263136, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Army Printing Press, Lucknow, 2, 115 (2011)
  2. Mishra S.K., Structural modifications in Hill-stream fishes, In Hill Stream Fishes Along the Indo-Nepal Border, Mittal Publications New Delhi (India), 10 (2012)
  3. Hora S.L., Structural modification of fishes of mountain torrent, Rec. Ind. Mus., 24, 31-61 (1922)
  4. Rauther M., Der Saugmund von Discognathus, Zool. J. Abt., 45-76 (1928)
  5. Saxena S.C., Adhesive apparatus of a hillstream cyprinid fish, Garra mullya (Sykes), Proc. Natn. Inst. Sci., India, 26, 176–188 (1959)
  6. Ojha J. and Singh S.K., Functional morphology of the anchorage system and food scrapers of a hill stream fish, Garra lamta (Ham.) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes), J. Fish Biol., 41, 159-161 (1992)
  7. Nagar K.C., Sharma M.S., Tripathi A.K. and Sansi R.K., Electron Microscopic study of Adhesive organ of Garra lamta (Ham), I. Res. J. Biological Sci 1(6), 43-48 (2012)
  8. Singh N., Agarwal N.K. and Singh H.R., SEM investigations on the adhesive apparatus of Garra gotyla gotyla (Family-Cyprinidae) from Garhwal Himalayas, In: Singh H.R. (Eds), Advances in Fish Biology, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 281-291 (1994)
  9. Gaur K.S., Sharma V., Verma V. K. and Sharma M.S., SEM study of Adhesive organ of typical Hill Stream fish Garra gotyla (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), J. Cell and Tissue Research, 13(1), 3473-3478 (2013)
  10. Teimori A., Esmaeili H.R. and Ansari T.H., Micro-structure Consideration of the Adhesive Organ in Doctor fish, Garra rufa (Teleostei : Cyprinidae) from Persian Gulf Basin, Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 11, 407-411 (2011)
  11. Dey S., Baul T.S.B., Roy B. and Dey D., A new rapid method of air-drying for Scanning Electron Microscopy using Tetra-methyl Silane, J. Microscopy,156, 259-261 (1989)
  12. Linthoingambi I., Shashibala N. and Dayabanta K., Histological studies of adhesive organ in cyprinid fish, Garra abhoyai Hora, from Manipur, India (Teleostei : Cyprinidae), International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture, 3(3), 66-70 (2013)
  13. Tortora G.J. and Grabowski S.R., The lymphatic system, nonspecific resistance to diseases, and immunity, In: Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (7th Eds), Harper Collins College Publishers, 692 (1993)
  14. Ojha J., Anchorage system in hillstream fishes. In Biology of Hillstream Fishes, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi-110006, 66 (2002)