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Evaluation of the Combinational Antimicrobial Effect of Annona Squamosa and Phoenix Dactylifera Seeds Methanolic Extract on Standard Microbial Strains

Author Affiliations

  • 1Centre for R and D in Life Sciences; Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Post Graduate-Department of Biotechnology, Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Dr. C.D. Sagar Centre for Life Sciences, S.M. Hills Kumaraswamy Layout, Bangalore-560078, INDIA
  • 2 Eurofins Genomics India Pvt Ltd., 183, Gayathri Tech Park, 1st Floor, Whitefield, Bangalore, Karnataka- 560066, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (5), Pages 68-73, May,10 (2013)


In recent times, there is an extensive interest in these Alcoholic extracts due to the emergence and spread of new drug resistant human pathogens to existing antimicrobials. The emergence of medicine opposing pathogens is one of the most critical threats to booming treatment of bacterial diseases. Mode of action of Methanolic extracts likely involves fairly a lot of targets in the cell due to huge number of active components and also their hydroplillicity helps them to screen in the cell membrane, rendering them permeable , leading to leakage of cell contents. This calls for a transformed effort to identify agents efficient against disease causing bacteria to present antimicrobials. Seed extracts of two different plants viz. Phoenix dactylifera and Annona squamosa, were prepared by methanol extraction method at the ratio of 1:2 using 100ml volume of methanol and stock concentration of 50mg/ml in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) of each extract was made.The extracts and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against standard microbial strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (gram- negative), Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive), Escherichia.coli (gram-negative), Salmonella typhi (gram-negative) ,Enterococcus faecalis (grampositive), Pseudomon aerugenosa (gram-negative),and Salmonella paratyphi (gram-negative) by means of Agar-Disc Diffusion Method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was noted .. The test culture of standard microbial cultures was 3 X 10 CFU/ml, and standard antibiotic used is Ampicillin with clavulanic acid. In this context, two extract from traditional plants, Custard Apple (Annona squamosa) and Dates (Phoenix dactylifera) were used alone or in combination to assess their antimicrobial efficacy against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial clinical isolates .Antimicrobial test was completed by agar disc diffusion method. Although, both extract were found to be effective in inhibiting pathogens to varying degrees to the tested organisms, the Annona squamosa extract is found to be more effective than Phoenix dactylifera.When both extracts were used in combination, they have shown strong synergistic effect against all the pathogens tested in the present studyexcept for the P.aerugenosa and S. Para typhi. Bactericidal abilities displayed by the seed extracts signified their remarkable potential for exploration for effective natural antimicrobial agents against standard pathogenic bacteria. The extracts have shown the synergistic effects even at their MIC against E.fecalis, indicating that with further researches these extracts can be used for treating enteric diseases.


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