6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Phyllosphere Microflora of Muga Silkworm Host Plant Persea bombycina Kost (Som) Leaves in Jorhat District of Assam, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1Biotechnology Division, Central Silk Board, Central Muga Eri Research & Training Institute, Lahdoigarh-785700, Jorhat, Assam, INDIA

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 2, Issue (12), Pages 60-65, December,10 (2013)

Abstract

Phyllosphere microorganisms influence the growth of their host plants, either negatively as pathogens or positively by increasing the stress tolerance and disease resistance. Persea bombycina Kost is the primary host plant of golden silk producing muga silkworm Antheraea assamensis. In this study, silkworm fed and non-fed leaf samples of Persea bombycina was collected from Jorhat District, Assam, India towards the isolation, enumeration and characterization of phylloplane microflora by culture dependent techniques using NA, Luria, Czapek-Dox, PDA and RBC Agar media. The average fungal and bacterial population was recorded more in non-fed leaf then silkworm fed leaf samples throughout the year. There was significant positive correlation between temperature and microbial population, whereas negative correlation was observed against relative humidity. Characterization of bacterial isolates was carried out by Gram’s staining method and according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Out of eight isolates, two were Gram positive cocci, three Gram positive rod, two Gram negative rod and one Gram negative cocci. Fungal isolates were identified on the basis of their colony morphology, mycelium, sporangiophore and spore morphology. It was noticed that the Penicillium species is dominant among all the isolated fungal species. Other isolates were identified as Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Yeast.

References

  1. Kim M., Singh D., Lai-Hoe A., Go R., Rahim R. A., Ainuddin A.N., Chun J. and Adams J. M., Distinctive Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities in Tropical Trees, Microb Ecol., 63 (3), 674-681 (2012)
  2. Morris C. and Kinkel L., Fifty years of phyllosphere microbiology: significant contributions to research in related fields. Phyllosphere Microbiology, Lindow, S., E. Hecht-Poinar and V. Elliott, (Eds.). APS Press, St. Paul, MN, USA, 365-375 (2002)
  3. T. Cordier, Robin C., Capdevielle X., Desprez-Loustau M.L. and Vacher C., Spatial variability of phyllosphere fungal assemblages: genetic distance predominates over geographic distance in a European beech stand (Fagus sylvatica), Fungl Ecol., 5(5), 509-520 (2012)
  4. Leveau J., Life on leaves, Nature,461, 741 (2009)
  5. A. Tikader, Vijayan K. and Saratchandra B., Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) – an overview of distribution, biology and breeding, Eur. J. Entomol., 110(2), 293-300 (2013)
  6. Chakravorty R., Neog K., Suryanarayana N. and Hazarika L.K., Feeding and moulting behaviour of muga silkworm Anthereae assama Ww) on different food plants. Sericol., 44(2), 145-152 (2004)
  7. Saikia S., Handique R., Pathak A. and K. Das., Rearing performance of muga on the primary and secondary food plants with an attempt for the survival of now extinct Mejankari silk heritage of Assam, Sericol., 44 (3), 373-376 (2004)
  8. Bindroo B.B., Singh N.T. and Sahu A.K., Litsea glutinosa Lour. - A new food plant of muga silkworm (Anthereae assamensis Helfer.), Sericol., 49 (2) 231-237 (2009)
  9. F.M. Al-Jasass, Assessment of the microbial growth and chemical changes in beef and lamb meat collected from supermarket and shop during summer and winter season, Res. J. Recent Sci., 2(4), 20-27 (2013)
  10. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A. and Staley, Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA, 175-189 (1994)
  11. Smibert R.M. and Krieg N.R., Generation Characterization. In: Manual of Methods for General Bacteriology, Gerhard, P.M., R.N. Castillow, E.W. Nester, W.A. Wood, N.R. Krieg and G.B Phillips, (Eds.), American Society for Microbiology, USA, 409-443 (1981)
  12. S. Kumaran, Deivasigamani B., Alagappan K. M., Sakthivel M. and Guru Prasad S., Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. KUMS3 from Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) with fin rot, World J Microbiol Biotechnol., 26 (2), 359-363 (2010)
  13. Domsch K.H., Games W. and Anderson T.H., Compendium of Soil Fungi, Academic Press, London, Vol.-I. Eching: IHW-verlag, 860 (1980)
  14. R.N. Kharwar, GondS., KumarA. and Mishra A., A comparative study of endophytic and epiphytic fungal association with leaf of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., and their antimicrobial activity, World J. Microbiol Biotechnol., 26(11), 1941-1948 (2012)
  15. Hata K. and Futai K., Endophytic fungi associated with healthy pine needles and needles infested by the pine needle gall midge Thecodiplosis japonensis. Can. J. Bot., 73, 384-390 (1995)
  16. L. Xu, Zhou L., Zhao J., Li J., Li X. and Wang J., Fungal endophytes from Dioscorea zingiberensis rhizomes and their antibacterial activity, Lett Appl Microbiol., 46(1), 68-72 (2008)
  17. Andrews J.H., Kenerley C.M. and Nordheim E.V., Positional variation in phylloplane population within an apple tree canopy, Microb. Ecol., 71–84 (1980)
  18. D.M. Jadhav and Gawai D.U., Effect of different nutrient sources on biomass production of phylloplane yeast Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary), Intl. Res. J. Biological Sci., 1(8), 85-87, (2012)
  19. J. A. Vorholt, Microbial life in the phyllosphere. Nature Rev Microbiol., 10, 828-840 (2012)
  20. Lindow S.E. and Brandl M.T., Microbiology of the phyllosphere, Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,69, 1875–1883 (2003)
  21. Baldotto L.E.B. and Olivares F.L., Phylloepiphytic interaction between bacteria and different plant species in a tropical agricultural system, Can. J. Microbiol.54, 918–931 (2008)
  22. Andrews J.H. and Harris R.F., The ecology and biogeography of microorganisms of plant surfaces, Annu Rev Phytopathol., 38,145–180 (2000)
  23. Kakati L.N. and Kakati B.T., Seasonality of nutrient contents of different leaf types of two primary host plants of Antheraea assamensis Helfer, The Ecoscan, 1, 262-165 (2011)
  24. Sen A.K., Chemical constituents of leaves of Som plant, Ind. J. Seri., 34, 39-42 (1988)
  25. R. Chakraborty, Impact of microbe in degradation of bamboo plantation of Balpakram National Park of Meghalaya with special reference to the parasitic forms, India, Res. J. Recent Sci.,1(ISC-2011) 310-312 (2012)
  26. Amanda J.R., Robert M.B., Knight R., Linhart Y. and Fierer N., The ecology of the phyllosphere: geographic and phylogenetic variability in the distribution of bacteria on tree leaves, Environ Microbiol., 12(11), 2885–2893 (2010)
  27. Stadler B., Michalzik B., and Mueller T., Linking aphid ecology with nutrient fluxes in a coniferous forest, Ecolog., 79, 1514–1525 (1998)
  28. Papen H., Gessler A., Zumbusch E., and Rennenberg H., Chemolithoautotrophic nitrifiers in the phyllosphere of a spruce ecosystem receiving high atmospheric nitrogen input, Curr. Microbiol.44, 56–60 (2002)
  29. S.N. Bobade and Khyade V.B., Influence of inorganic nutrients on the activity of enzyme, nitrate reductase in the leaves of mulberry, Morus alba (L) (M-5 variety), Res. J. Recent Sci., 1(5), 14-21 (2012)
  30. Freiberg E., Microclimatic parameters influencing nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere in a Costa Rican premontane rain forest, Oecologia, 117, 9–18 (1998)
  31. V. Bhardwaj and Neelam G., Importance of exploration of microbial biodiversity, ISCA J. Biological Sci., 1(3), 78-83 (2012)