International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Biodegrading and Bio deteriorating monuments of Ujjain: a comparison of the current status to Simhasth 2016 of Ujjain, MP, India

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain, MP, India
  • 2School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain, MP, India

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 10, Issue (2), Pages 30-35, May,10 (2021)

Abstract

The conditions of monuments affected by biodegradation and biodeterioration before and after Simhasth 2016 Ujjain M.P. India were monitored. Maintenance activities carried out on the ancient monuments of Ujjain including Temples for 2016 Simhasth were analyzed. In this study we compared the present condition of these monuments to before Simhasth 2016 of the same. We made comparisons of these monuments by photographs of then and now by using grid counts. The visible biodegraded and biodeteriorated mean area was decreased less than 2% since the time before Simhasth (Chi-Square p<0.004). This improvement was mostly because of eradication of scaled and biofilm areas. This manuscript is an effort to promote comprehensive restoration plans. Also regularly maintaining, conserving and restoring the monuments of ecological importance. In future, this can also serve as new tool for scientific quantification and analysis of stone damage.

References

  1. De Miguel, J. G., Sanchez-Castillo, L., Ortega-Calvo, J. J., Gil, J. A., & Saiz-Jimenez, C. (1995). Deterioration of building materials from the Great Jaguar Pyramid at Tikal, Guatemala. Building and environment, 30(4), 591-598., undefined, undefined
  2. Pope G., Meierding T. and Paradise T. (2002)., Geomorphology, Geomorphology, 47(2-4), 211-225.
  3. Gaylarde CC and Gaylarde PM (2002)., Biodeterioration of Historic Buildings in Latin America., Abstract Retrieved from 9th DBMC International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, 171, 1-9.
  4. Saiz-Jimenez C. (1997)., Biodeterioration vs biodegradation: the role of microorganisms in the removal of pollutants deposited on historic buildings., International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 40 (2-4), 225-232.
  5. Twain M. (1869)., The Innocents Abroad., First edition. American Publishing Company, New York, 685.
  6. El-Gohary M. (2012)., The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt., International Journal of Conservation Science, 3(2), 67-78.
  7. Hemeda S. (2012)., Ground Penetrating Radar Investigations for Architectural Heritage Preservation of the Habib Sakakini Palace, Cairo, Egypt., International Journal of Conservation Science, 3(3), 153-162.
  8. Ranalli G. and Zanardini E. (2003)., Rapid biodeteriogen and biocide diagnosis on artwork: A bioluminescent low-light imaging technique., Annals of Microbiology, 53(1), 1-14.
  9. Fitzner, B., Heinrichs, K. and La Bouchardeire D. (2002)., Damage index for stone monuments., 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Seville, 315-326.
  10. Warscheid, T. and Braams J. (2000)., Biodeterioration of stone: A review., International Biodeterioration Biodegradation, 46, 343-368.
  11. Urzi, C., F. De Leo, S. De How and K. Sterflinger. (2000)., Recent advances in the molecular biology and ecophysiology of meristematic stoneinhabiting fungi. The role of microbial communities in the degradation and protection of cultural heritage., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publisher, New York. pp. 3-21.
  12. Dukes W.H. (1972)., Conservation of Stone: Chemical Treatments., The Architects
  13. Alamy Stock Photos (2016). www.alamy.com, undefined, undefined
  14. Vallet J.M., Gosselin C., Bromblet P., Rolland O., Vergs-Belmin V. and Kloppmann W. (2006)., Origin of salts in stone monument degradation using sulphur and oxygen isotopes: First results of the Bourges cathedral (France)., Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88(1-3), 358-362.
  15. Urz C. and Krumbein W. E. (1994)., Microbiological impacts on the cultural heritage. Durability and change: the science, responsibility, and cost of sustaining cultural heritage., Wiley, J.& Sons. 107-135.
  16. Monge-Najera J. and Morera-Brenes B. (2014)., Biodeterioration and biodegradation of Roman monuments: a comparison of the current Status of 18th century paintings by the canalettos., International journal of Conservation science, 5 (1), 3-8.
  17. Sanjay Prasad G. and Kavita S. (2012)., Biodeterioration and preservation of sita devi Temple, deorbija, chhattisgarh, India., International journal of Conservation science, 2(2), 89-94.
  18. Fitzner B., Heinrichs K. and La Bouchardiere D. (2002)., Damage index for Stone monuments. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Sevilla, Spain, 5-8, pp. 315-326., undefined
  19. Griffin PS, Indicator N and Koestler RJ (1991)., The biodeterioration of stone: A Review of deterioration mechanisms, conservation case histories and treatment., International Biodeterioration, 28(1-4), 187-207.
  20. Gaylarde Christine C. (2020)., Influence of environment on Microbial Colonization of Historic Stone Buildings with Emphasis on Cyanobacteria., Heritage, 3(4), 1469-1482.
  21. Sakr A., Ali M.F., Ghaly M.F., El-Sayed M. and Abdel-Haliem F. (2012)., Discoloration of Ancient Egyptian Mural Paintings by Streptomyces Strains and Methods of its Removal., International Journal of Conservation Science, 3(4), 249-258.
  22. Dutta, B.K., Rahman, I., and Das, T.K. (1998)., Antifungal activity of Indian plant extracts., Mycoses, 41(11-12), 535-6.