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Vultures in India: A review

Author Affiliations

  • 1Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India
  • 2Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India
  • 3Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India
  • 4Ecology and Wildlife Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi University, Doimukh- 791112, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Int. Res. J. Biological Sci., Volume 10, Issue (1), Pages 70-78, February,10 (2021)


Various papers published on studies related to the status of vultures in India were collected and assessed to acquire relevant information. In this paper, we reviewed and outlined the distribution, unique adaptations, habitat preferences, feeding behavior, breeding behavior, population status, threats, and impacts of the decline of vultures in India. Vultures are medium to large-sized scavenging birds that primarily feed on carrions. Being scavengers, they deliver an array of ecological, economic and cultural services. They feed on rotten carcasses and prevent the spread of deadly and contagious diseases like brucellosis, rabies, anthrax, plague, tuberculosis, etc. In the last two decades, drastic decline in the numbers of vulture populations have been observed. Many workers found the use of diclofenac; a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in livestock is the main culprit for such decline. However, other factors of equal potential are also recognized, which include food scarcity, habitat loss, and others. The decline of these vultures poses serious threats to wildlife, livestock, and human health.


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