International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Item Analysis of History Achievement Test on Difference Index (DI) in the Criterion Referenced Measurement

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Education, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu, INDIA
  • 2

Res. J.Educational Sci., Volume 1, Issue (5), Pages 1-8, August,1 (2013)


This piece of work was aimed to analyze test items of a achievement in the subject of history (Indian) standard of 11th. Objective tests are widely used to measure intelligence, aptitude, and achievement (or attainment). Item analysis allows selecting or omitting items from the test, but more important, item analysis is a tool to help the item writer improve an item. Item statistics used in the item analysis of such criterion-referenced test: the difference index (DI). The difference index shows the gain, or difference in performance, on each item between the pretest and posttest. Purposive sampling was adopted for this study and 15 students were taken from municipal girl’s higher secondary school, Gugai, Salem district in Tamil Nadu state, country of India. A test of 190 items was used for data collection. Photographs (358) based teaching history of instruction, before and after the tests were conducted. Findings of the study were total 190 items of achievement test for the difference index like 80 items are much better related to the curriculum, 25 items are higher values and 85 items are not fitting because they reflect only small gains. So these items were rejected. Finally 105 items were selected form of history achievement test.


  1. dated 01.06.2013
  2. Keeves P. John., Educational Research Methodology and Measurement: An International Handbook (Second Edition), Hambleton R.K., (Eds.), Criterion Referenced Measurement (719-725), Stocking M.L., (Eds.), Item Response Theory (836-839) Choppin B. H., (Eds.), Objective Tests (771-775) UK, USA, Japan, Elsevier Science Ltd (1997)
  3. Tom Kubiszyn and Gary Borich., Educational Testing and Measurement Classroom Application and Practice, (7th Edition) Singapore, John. Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pvt. Ltd (2003)
  4. dated 06.06.2013
  5. Gerard Guthrie., Basic Research Methods an entry to Social Science Research, Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, Washington DC, SAGE Publications (2010)
  6. James Dean Brown., Criterion-referenced item analysis (the difference index and B-index), SHIKEN: The JALT testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 7(3), 18-24 (2003)