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Petrography and geochemistry of middle bhuban formation Nagaland, India: Implications on depositional environment, provenance, paleoweathering and tectonic settings

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India
  • 2Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India
  • 3Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India
  • 4Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India
  • 5Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India

Int. Res. J. Earth Sci., Volume 6, Issue (1), Pages 1-11, January,25 (2018)


Petrography and geochemistry of Middle Bhuban Formation (Surma group) Nagaland was determined for depositional environment, provenance, paleoweathering and tectonic settings. Six petrographic rock types of quartz rich were identified. Definite micrograding of sediment sequence comprising of fine quartz wacke, siltstone and organic rich clay (upward fining) attest the transportation and deposition of sediments by currents in deeper shelfal environment. Unbent mica flakes with the floating nature of clasts in matrix rich material reveal composition of sediments that reached depositional basin has rich clay matrix and sediments underwent shallow burial diagenesis. The Chemical Index Alteration, Plagioclase Index Alteration and Chemical Index Weathering (CIA, PIA and CIW) indicate moderate weathering in source area. A-CN-K diagram reiterates source rocks had attained moderate weathering. The Al2O3/TiO2 ratio corroborates sediments derivation from felsic rich provenance. The average SiO2/Al2O3 ratio suggests sediments derived from acidic rocks. The discrimination analysis shows sediments falling under the Quartzose sedimentary provenance. The bivariate plot of SiO2 vs. total Al2O3+K2O+Na2O indicates sediments deposition under arid to semi-arid paleoclimate. K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2 and SiO2/Al2O3 vs. K2O/Na2O diagrams illustrate sediments deposition in active continental margin where sediments are mineralogically, chemically and texturally immature. Thus, quartz rich fine clastics were derived from crystalline source rocks with some contribution from older sedimentaries and deposited in a convergent tectonic setting involving dynamics of Indian subducting plate under Burmese plate in the northeastern India.


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