Participatory Integrated Pest Management (PIPM) Approach: An Overview
- 1Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Kathmandu, Nepal
Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 8, Issue (2), Pages 45-52, April,8 (2020)
The combined use of chemical and biological measures, use of tactical mixture of many measures and use of pesticide only when it is inevitable were the major components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies of different time periods. All these concepts of IPM have been derailed from its core theme and was unable to reduce the pesticide use. Therefore, a new approach known as Participatory Integrated Pest Management (PIPM) consists of new principle of IPM with several novel extension approaches of farmer empowerment and education has been emerged. The objectives of this study is to update available information on various aspects of Participatory Integrated Pest Management (PIPM) strategy against major pests and diseases of different crops by reviewing the available materials. The study was conducted with data and information collected from several journals, proceedings and books. The new concept of IPM was derived from the natural agro-ecosystem of ancient time in which the pest population and the population of their natural enemies were naturally adjusted by ecosystem. The notion of PIMP was to enhance the knowledge of farmers on underlying ecological principles of their crop fields through non-formal education. The approach is popularly known as IPM farmers´ field school, which provides practical knowledge to farmers on ecosystem of their crop field and focuses on empowerment of the farmers for their multi-dimensional development. PIPM conduct farmers lead practical sessions, which include planning, training and education on field ecosystem analysis, special topics on agriculture production, practical observation of interaction of pest and predators in insect zoo, group dynamic activities and self-evaluation of the experience and outcomes of FFS. The previous approach of IPM was heavily centralized and followed the top down approach. The approach was research driven instead of farmers driven, so farmers couldn´t feel affection on the IPM technology generated on research station and brought directly to their field. In addition, the technology developed in a specific environment of research station was not compatible to diverse agro-ecosystem of their field and was inappropriate for varied socio-economic condition of farmers. The experience of FFS conducted so far in several countries of Asia indicates the sustainable nature of this approach; however, several factors such as institutional, socio-economical, technical and educational factor influence on the sustainability of the approach. The extent of influence of these factors may differ among countries and communities. Many of these factors could be manage in few countries, where as it is difficult to cope up with these factors in the other countries. The weak linkages among the various institution and lack of experts in under developed countries hinder the adoption of PIMP. The higher percentage of marginal farmers for whom agriculture is the only source of livelihood is the limitation as well as a prospect for extension of the PIPM approach in countries like Nepal. PIPM is a unique and appropriate approach of pest management which has been tested and adopted by several countries of Asia. PIMP could reduce the injudicious use of pesticides in agriculture sectors, if precise and sincere attempts of researchers, extension staffs, government and other stake holders are readily and constantly available.
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