International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Farmers′ perception on transitioning to organic agriculture (OA) in Tsirang district, Bhutan

Author Affiliations

  • 1College of Natural Resources, Lobesa, Punakha, Bhutan
  • 2College of Natural Resources, Lobesa, Punakha, Bhutan

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 8, Issue (1), Pages 40-48, January,8 (2020)


Organic agriculture (OA) has its roots in traditional agricultural practices. By trial and error, local farmers passed their best results from generation to generation. In Bhutan, given the importance and the country′s commitment to convert fully to organic, it is imperative to investigate how farmers feel on this matter as they are the principal implementers of the plan on the ground. Accordingly, this study was conducted to (i) identify the drivers and deterrents of transitioning to OA and (ii) assess farmers′ perception on transitioning to OA in Tsirang Dzongkhag. A total of 326 farmers were randomly selected from five Gewogs and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results of binary regression indicated that farmers who were aware of OA and its benefits were more likely to convert organic (p&


  1. Tracy M. (1989)., Government and agriculture in Western Europe 1880–1988., London: NYU Press.
  2. Reganold J.P., Palmer A.S., Lockhart J.C. and Macgregor A.N. (1993)., Soil quality and financial performance of biodynamic and conventional farms in New Zealand., Science, 260(5106), 344-349.
  3. Patidar H. and Patidar S. (2015)., A Study of Perception of Farmers towards Organic Farming., International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), 4(3), 269-277.
  4. Setboonsarng S. (2006)., Organic Agriculture, Poverty Reduction, and the Millennium Development Goals., Retrieved from
  5. Chhetri R., Fukamachi K. and Kobayashi M. (2015)., Transition of Agriculture towards Organic Farming in Bhutan., 16, 66-72.
  6. NOP. (2017)., National Organic., . Accessed 19 April 2019
  7. Dorji L. (2017)., Drivers and Deterrents of Adopting Organic Agriculture: Results from Paro Dzongkhag., (B.Sc. Agriculture), Royal University of Bhutan, College of Natural Resources.
  8. Tshomo S. (2017)., Drivers and Deterrents of adopting Organic Agriculture (OA) in Bumthang and Mongar Dzongkhags., (B.Sc. Agriculture), Royal University of Bhutan, College of Natural Resource.
  9. Tashi S. and Wangchuk K. (2016)., Organic vs. conventional rice production:comparative assessment under farmers′condition in Bhutan., Organic Agriculture, 6(4), 255-265. doi:10.1007/s13165-015-0132-4
  10. Wangchuk S. (2017)., Socio-economic Impact of Organic Farming in Gasa Dzongkhag., (B.Sc. Agriculture), Royal University of Bhutan, College of Natural Resources.
  11. NSB. (2010)., Annual Dzongkhag Statistics 2010 National Statistics Bureau., Retrieved from
  12. Pelzom T. and Katel O. (2018)., Youth Perception of Agriculture and potential for employment in the context of rural development in Bhutan., Development, Environment and Foresight, 3(2), 92-107.
  13. MoAF. (2006)., National Framework for Organic Farming in Bhutan.,
  14. ICIMOD and MoAF. (2018)., Organic Agriculture Development Strategies: Roadmap for 12th Five Year Plan and Beyond., Khatmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).
  15. Tashi S. (2015)., Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan., Advances in Agriculture, 2016. doi:
  16. Blake F. (2005)., Organic Farming and Growing., England: The Crow Wood Press.
  17. El-Hage Scialabba N. (2013)., Organic Agriculture, Crop Management, 12(1). doi:10.1094/CM-2013-0429-09-PS
  18. Tober D.S., Obiedzinska A., Kazimierczek R. and Rembialkowska E. (2016)., Environmental Impact of Organic Vs Conventional Agriculture-A review., Journal of Research and Applications in Agriculture Engineering, 61(4), 204-211.
  19. Duba S., Ghimiray M. and Gurung T.R. (2007)., Promoting Organic farming in Bhutan: A review of policy, implementation and constraints., 1-33.
  20. Pimentel D., Hepperly P., Hanson J., Douds D. and Seidel, R. (2005)., Environmental, Energetic and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems., BioScience, 55(7), 573-582. doi:[0573:EEAECO]2.0.CO;2
  21. McCrae-Hokenson M. (2014)., Organic Agriculture in Bhutan: Barriers Going to 100%., Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection: 1-56.
  22. Caldbeck J. and Sumption P. (2016)., Mind the gap–exploring the yield gaps between conventional and organic arable and potato crops., Organic Research Centre Bulletin, 121, 9-15.
  23. Neuhoff D., Tashi S., Rahmann G. and Denich M. (2014)., Organic agriculture in Bhutan: potential and challenges., Organic agriculture, 4(3), 209-221. doi:10.1007/s13165-014-0075-1
  24. Sarker M. and Yoshihito I. (2008)., Factors Influencing the Extent of Practice of Organic Farming Technologies: A Case Study of Tangail District in Bangladesh., American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 3(3), 584-590. doi:10.3844/ajabssp.2008.584.590
  25. Oluwasusi O.J. (2014)., Vegetable farmers′ attitude towards organic agriculture practices in selected states of south west nigeria., J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev., 6(7), 223-230. doi:10.5897/JAERD2013.0572
  26. Peterson H., Hikaru Barkley A., Chaco´n-Cascante A. and Kastens L. Terry (2012)., The motivation for organic grain farming in the united states: Profits, lifestyle, or the environment?., Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 44(2), 137-155.
  27. Ntshangase L., Njabulo Muroyiwa B. and Sibanda M. (2018)., Farmers′ perceptions and factors influencing the adoption of no-till conservation agriculture by small-scale farmers in Zashuke, Kwazulu-natal province., Sustainability, 10(2), 555. doi:10.3390/su10020555
  28. Karki L., Schleenbecker R. and Hammb U. (2011)., Factors influencing a conversion to organic farming in nepalese tea farms., J. Agr. Rural Develop. Trop. Subtrop, 112(2), 113-123.
  29. Chouichom S. and Yamao M. (2010)., Comparing Opinions And Attitudes Of Organic And Non-Organic Farmers Towards Organic Rice Farming System In North-Eastern Thailand., Journal of Organic Systems, 5(1), 25-35.