6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Influence of pre-sowing treatment and substrate on germination and seedling vigour of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC. and Newtonia camerunensis Villiers

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Crop Production Technology, College of Technology, The University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon
  • 2Department of Crop Production Technology, College of Technology, The University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 25-35, April,8 (2019)

Abstract

Seeds of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C.DC., and Newtonia camerunensis Villiers were subjected to five pre-sowing treatments (no treatment, soaking in cold water for 24 hours, soaking in hot water for 5 minutes, immersion in 20 % H2SO4 for 20 minutes, immersion in 60 % H2SO4 for 20 minutes) and sown in three substrates (sand, sawdust, and 1:1 sand:sawdust) in a non-mist propagator for nine weeks. The number of germinating seeds was recorded daily. Seedlings of Entandrophragma angolense were transplanted into polythene bags filled with the three substrates and moved to an outdoor nursery. Treatments were laid out in a slit-plot design with substrate as the whole plot and pre-sowing treatment as the sub-plot. Data on growth were collected twelve weeks after transplant. Germination percentage and growth rate index of Acacia angustissima were highest in hot water and lowest in the H2SO4 pre-treatments which did not show significant differences with the untreated control. While germination attributes of Entandrophragma angolense seeds did not respond to pre-sowing and substrate treatments, sand significantly increased seedling height, number of leaves, and leaf area in the species. Seeds of Newtonia camerunensis failed to germinate in any of the treatments. The findings suggest that the hot water scarification treatment could be beneficial for enhancing seed germination in Acacia angustissima and sand is a suitable substrate for early growth of Entandrophragma angolense.

References

  1. Taylor S.J. (2015)., African mountainous countries and their mountains: the Republic of Cameroon., Afro Mont, Centre for Environment Studies, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa, 1-30.
  2. Ingram V.J. and Jam A.N. (2007)., Plant and animal guide for the western Cameroon Highlands., Part I,Western Highlands Conservation Network, Technical Report, 1-14.
  3. Ndenecho E.N. (2006)., Degradation of useful plants in Oku tropical montane cloud forest, Cameroon., International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, 2(2), 73-86.
  4. Ndenecho E.N. (2011)., Local livelihoods and protected area management: Biodiversity conservation problems in Cameroon., Langaa Research and Publishing Common Initiative Group, Bamenda, Cameroon, 1-230. ISBN: 9956-717-54-1
  5. Assi-Kaudjhis C. (2012)., Vegetation evolution in the mountains of Cameroon during the last 20 000 years: pollen analysis of lake Bambili sediments., In:Blanco, J.A. and Lo, Y.-H.(Eds), Forest Ecosystems - More than Just Trees, InTech, 137-164. ISBN: 978-953-51-0202-1.
  6. Kometa S.S. (2013)., Wetlands exploitation along the Bafoussam - Bamenda road axis of the Western Highlands of Cameroon., Journal Human Ecology, 41(1), 25-32.
  7. Sedláček O., Mikeš M., Albrecht T., Reif J. and Hořák D. (2014)., Evidence for an edge effect on avian nest predation in fragmented afromontane forests in the Bamenda-Banso Highlands, NW Cameroon., Tropical Conservation Science, 7(4), 720-732.
  8. Fern K. (2018)., Tropical Plant Database., tropical.theferns.info. Accessed 26.09.2018.
  9. Orwa C., Mutua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R. and Anthony S. (2009)., Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide., version 4.0. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp. Accessed 01.10.2018.
  10. Tchinda A.T. (2008)., Entandrophragma angolense., C.DC. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Louppe, D., Oteng-Amoako, A.A. and Brink, M. (Eds). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressourcesvégétales de l'Afriquetropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. Accessed 30.09.2018.
  11. Ivie A., Nosayaba E., Shegun I. and Adeyemi T.O.A. (2017)., Growth rate and biomass production of Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) seedlings as affected by different organic soil amendments., World News of Natural sciences, 9, 35-44.
  12. IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature] (2018)., The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species., Version 2018-1. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on 26.09.2018.
  13. CAMGEW [Cameroon Gender and Environmental Watch] (2015)., Nchiiy Community Forest regeneration for increased honey production and biodiversity., Progress Report. http://www.rufford.org>files. Accessed 01.10.2018.
  14. Cheek M. and Pollard B.J. (2000)., Newtonian camerunensis., The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2000. eT39738A10261433. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T39738A10261433.en. Accessed on 01.10.2018.
  15. Farajollahi A., Gholinejad B. and Jafari H.J. (2014)., Effects of different treatments on seed germination improvement of Calotropis persica., Advances in Agriculture, 1-5. Article ID 245686.
  16. Botsheleng B., Mathowa T. and Mojeremane W. (2014)., Effects of pre-treatments methods on the germination of pod mahogany (Afzelia quanzensis) and mukusi (Baikiaea plurijuga) seeds., International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(1), 8108-8113.
  17. Falemara B.C., Chomini M.S., Thlama D.M. and Undenkwere M. (2014)., Pre-germination and dormancy response of Adansonia digitata L seeds to pre-treatment techniques and growth media., European Journal of Botany Plant Sciences and Pathology, 2(1), 13-23.
  18. Omokhua G.E., Ogu A. and Oyebade B.A. (2015)., Effects of different sowing media on germination and early seedling growth of Terminalia ivorensis., International Journal of Scientific and Technological Research, 4(3), 16-86.
  19. Ambebe T.F., Fontem L.A., Azibo B.R. and Mogho N.M.T. (2013)., Evaluation of regeneration stock alternatives for optimization of growth and survival of field-grown forest trees., Journal of Life Sciences, 7(5), 507-516.
  20. USDA-NRCS [United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service] (2015)., The PLANTS Database., Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants-usda.gov/. Accessed 01.10.2018.
  21. Tropical Forages (2017)., Fact sheet - Acacia angustissioma., www.tropicalforages.info. Accessed 03.10.2018.
  22. Idu M. and Omonhinmin A.C. (1999)., Effect of oven-heat and boiling on the germination and seedling development of Dichrostachys cinerea (L) Wight and Arn (Fabaceae)., Agronomie, 19(8), 671-676.
  23. Radivojevic L., Saric-Krsmanovic M., Gajic Umiljendic J., Bozic D. and Santric L. (2016)., The impacts of temperature, soil type and soil herbicides on seed germination and early establishment of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.)., Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici, 44(1), 291-295.
  24. Kanmegne G., Mbibong D.A., Fotso and Omokolo D.N. (2017)., Effects of substrates, different pretreatment protocols and dehydration on the induction of seeds germination of Xylopia aethiopica(Dunal) A. Rich., International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 11(2), 597-608.
  25. van Heerden K. and Yanai R.D. (1995)., Effects of stresses on forest growth in models applied to the Solling spruce site., Ecological Modeling, 83(1-2), 273-282.
  26. Ndenecho E.N. (2010)., Implications of fuel wood yield, availability and harvest in Tubah Mountain Forest, Cameroon., Global Journal of Human Social Science, 10(3), 49-55.
  27. Kiteh C.C. (2011)., Stakeholders participation: Myth or reality? A case study of community water supply management in Bambui-Tubah village in Cameroon (Unpublished Master Thesis)., Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala Universitet, Sweden.
  28. Leakey R.R.B. (1990)., Nauclea diderrichii: rooting of stem cuttings, clonal variation in shoot dominance, and branch plagiotropism., Trees, 4(3), 164-169.
  29. Ngo M.M. (2004)., Contribution to domestication of local high-value tree species: Case of Pausinystalia johimbe (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis)., Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon.
  30. Al-Mudaris M.A. (1998)., Notes on various parameters recording the speed of seed germination., Der Tropen landwirt, Beiträge zur tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinärmedizin, 99, Jahrgang, Oktober 98, S. 147-154.
  31. Rincón-Rosales R., Culebro-Espinosa N.R., Gutierrez-Miceli F.A. and Dendooven L. (2003)., Scarifiation of seeds of Acacia angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze and its effect on germination., Seed Science and Technology, 31(2), 301-307.
  32. Usman A., Sotannde O.A., Mbaya Y.P. and Musa Y. (2010)., Effects of hot and cold water pre-treatments on emergence of Acacia Senegal seeds in the nursery., Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment, 2(2), 207-213.
  33. Soliman A.S. and Abbas M.S. (2013)., Effects of sulfuric acid and hot water pre-treatments on seed germination and seedlings growth of Cassia fistula L., American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 13(1), 7-15.
  34. McDonnell A., Grant M. and Coons J.M. (2012)., Effects of hot water on breaking seed dormancy of the endangered kankakee mallow (Iliamna remota Greene (Malvaceae)., Faculty Research and Creative Activity, 192. https://thekeep.eiu.edu/bio_fac/192. Accessed 01.10.2018.
  35. Yisau J.A., Aduradola A.M., Agboola D.A. and Jayeola O.A. (2015)., Influence of pre-germination treatments on germination potentials and seedling vigour of Albizia zygia (D.C. Macbr.)., Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 19(3), 397-400.
  36. Luna T., Wilkinson K. and Dumroese R.K. (2009)., Seed germination and sowing options., In: Dumroese, R.K., Luna, T., Landis,T.D. (Eds), Nursery manual for native plants: A guide for tribal nurseries - Volume 1: Nursery management, Agriculture Handbook 730. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, 133-151.
  37. Ross M.A. and Harper J.L. (1972)., Occupation of biological space during seedling establishment., Journal of Ecology, 60(1), 77-88.
  38. Abul-Fatih H.A. and Bazzaz F.A. (1979)., The biology of Ambrosia trifida L. II. Germination, emergence, growth and survival., New Phytologist, 83(3), 817-827.
  39. Dewir Y.H., El-Sayed El-Mahrouk M.E. and Naidoo Y. (2011)., Effects of some mechanical and chemical treatments on seed germination of Sabal palmetto and Thrinax morrisii palms., Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(3), 248-253.
  40. Tavili A. (2014)., Effect of some treatments on germination improvement of two Astragalus species., In: Muzenda, E. and Yingthawornsuk, T. (Eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Biological, Environment and Food Engineering (BEFE 2014), Bali, Indonesia, August 4-5, 29-31. ISBN 978-81-929653-3-8.
  41. Gbadamosi A.E. and Oni O. (2004)., Effect of pretreatments on germination of seeds of the medicinal plant Enantia Chlorantha Oliv., Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 2(2), 288-290.
  42. Purwantoro R.S. (2017)., Effect of growing media on seed germination and seedling growth of Aganope Heptaphylla (Leguminosae)., Nusantara Bioscience, 8(2), 150-154.
  43. Lambers H., Chapin F.S. III and Pons T.L. (2008)., Plant physiological ecology., Springer-Verlag New York, 1-605. ISBN: 978-0-387-78340-6.
  44. Baiyeri K.P. (2005)., Response of Musa species to macropropagation. II: The effects of genotype, initiation and weaning media on sucker growth and quality in the nursery., African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(2), 229-234.
  45. Bunt A.C. (1998)., Media and mixes for container-grown plants., Springer Netherlands, 1-309. ISBN: 978-94-011-7904-1.
  46. Brady N.C. and Weil R.R. (1999)., The nature and properties of soils., Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey, 1-881. ISBN 9780138524449, 0138524440.
  47. Pregitzer K.S. and King J.S. (2005)., Effects of soil temperature on nutrient uptake., Bassiri Rad, H. (Ed), Nutrient acquisition by plants - an ecological perspective, Springer-Verlag Berlin, 277-310. ISBN 978-3-540-24186-7.
  48. Zhang S. and Dang Q.L. (2007)., Interactive effects of soil temperature and [CO2] on morphological and biomass traits in seedlings of four boreal tree species., Forest Science, 53(3), 453-460.
  49. Ambebe T.F. and Dang Q.L. (2009)., Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera)seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations., Tree Physiology, 29, 1341-1348.
  50. Pregitzer K.S., King J.S., Burton A.J. and Brown S.E. (2000)., Responses of tree fine roots to temperature., New Phytologist, 147(1), 105-115.
  51. Atkin O.K., Edwards E.J. and Loveys B.R. (2000)., Response of root respiration to changes in temperature and its relevance to global warming., The New Phytologist, 147(1), 141-154.
  52. Lambers H., Atkin O.K. and Millenaar F.F. (2002)., The respiratory patterns in roots in relation to their functioning., In: Waisel, Y., Eshel, A., Beeckman, T and Kafkafi, U. (Eds), Plant roots: the hidden half, CRC Press, 521-552. ISBN0824744748, 9780824744748.
  53. Mexal J.G. and Landis L.D. (1990)., Target seedling concepts: height and diameter., Rose, R., Campbell, S.J. and Landis, T.D. (Eds),Target Seedling Symposium: Proceedings of the Combined Meeting of the Western Forest Nursery Associations, August 13-17, Roseburg, Oregon, General Technical Report RM-200, Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 17-36.
  54. Frampton L.J., Isik F. and Goldfarb B. (2002)., Effects of nursery characteristics on field survival and growth of loblolly pine rooted cuttings., Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 26(4), 207-213.
  55. Thompson J.R. and Schultz R.C. (1995)., Root system morphology of Quercus rubra L. planting stock and 3-year field performance in Iowa., New Forests, 9(3), 225-236.
  56. Burdett A.N. (1983)., Quality control in the production of forest planting stock., Forestry Chronicle, 59(3), 132-138.
  57. McCreary D.D. and Duryea M.L. (1987)., Predicting field performance of Douglas-fir seedlings: Comparison of root growth potential, vigor, and plant moisture stress., New Forests, 1(3), 153-169.