International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Stability of yield and selected yield components of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Southern and Eastern Tanzania

Author Affiliations

  • 1Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Cashew Research Programme, P.O. Box 509 Mtwara, Tanzania
  • 2Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, P. O. Box 3005 Morogoro, Tanzania
  • 3Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, P. O. Box 3005 Morogoro, Tanzania
  • 4Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Cashew Research Programme, P.O. Box 509 Mtwara, Tanzania

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 5, Issue (9), Pages 6-12, September,8 (2017)


Studies were undertaken to evaluate G x E interaction and determine stability of elite cashew hybrids and thereby identify widely and/or specifically adapted hybrids in the Southern and Eastern Tanzania. Results showed significant hybrid x locations interaction for all variables indicating differential genotypic responses of yield and yield components across the tested environments. High yielding genotypes with broad adaptation and some with specific adaptation were identified. Of these H3, H5, H6, H15, H16, H22, H23, H24, H26, H27 and H29 were adapted to the varying environments. In the contrary, high yielding unstable hybrids H2, H4, H7, H18, H19, H25 and H30 were more suitable for Nachingwea site while H1, H8, H10, H11, H13 and H17 were more favourable for Chambezi site. Hybrids H22, H5 and H24 were identified as the best in stability and yield with good agronomic attributes, and tolerance to cashew leaf and nut blight disease. Among the least stable hybrids in yield, H4, H8, H17, H11, H18 and H30 registered high yields with good agronomic traits. H28, H12 and H9 appeared to be stable but recorded low yields. Therefore, crosses between these two groups will likely combine stability and yield so as to have stable cashew hybrids with high yield. Chambezi site with higher cashew leaf and nut blight disease due to more humid and warmer conditions had fewer productive flowers, higher individual kernel weights, fewer nuts per tree but lower total yields.


  1. Malegesi M. (2015)., Status of Cashewnut Industry in Tanzania., Proceedings of the Third International Cashew Conference. (Edited by Masawe, P. A. L., Kafiriti, E. M., Mneney, E. E., Shomari, S. H., Kullaya, A. K., Kasuga, L. J. F., Bashiru, R. A., Kabanza, A. and B. Kidunda.). Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 16-19th November 2015. Colour Print Tanzania Ltd. 250-255.
  2. CFC (2011)., Final Report, Regional Cashew Improvement Network for Eastern and Southern Africa 2004-2010., Project No. (CFC/FIGTF/04). Common Fund for Commodities.
  3. Masawe P.A.L. (2006)., Tanzania Cashew Cultivars: Selected Clones., Cashew Research Programme, Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Mtwara, Tanzania, 64.
  4. Masawe P.A.L., Cundall E.P. and Caligari P.D.S. (1999)., Studies on Genotype-environment interaction (GxE) in half-sib progenies of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania., Tanzanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(1), 53-62.
  5. Bhatia V.K. (2007)., Some aspects of stability of crop varieties., I.A.S.R.I Library Avenue, New Delhi-110012, 11.
  6. Bondari K. (1999)., Statistical Analysis of Genotype x Environment Interaction in Agricultural Research., Experimental Statistics, Coastal Plain Station, University of Georgia, Tifton, G.A. 31793-0748, 6.
  7. Gurmu F., Mohammed H. and Alemaw G. (2009)., Genotype x Environment Interactions and Stability of Soybean for grain yield and Nutrition quality., African Crop Science Journal, 17(2), 87-99.
  8. Wachira F., Ng’etich W., Omolo J. and Mamati G. (2002)., Genotype × environment interactions for tea yields., Euphytica, 127(2), 289-297.
  9. Wricke G. (1962)., On a method of understanding the diversity in field research., Journal of Plant Breeding, 47, 92-96.
  10. Goncalves P.S., Bortoletto N., Martins A.L.M., Costa R.B. and Gallo P.B. (2003)., Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability for girth growth and rubber yield of Havea clones in Sao Paulo State, Brazil., Genetics and Molecular Biology, 26(4), 441-448. [ scielo.php] site visited on 15/02/2014.
  11. Adugna A. (2007)., Assessment of Yield Stability in Sorghum., African Crop Science Journal, 15(2), 83– 92.
  12. Cvarkovic R., Brankovic G., Calic I., Delic N., Živanovic T. and Šurlan Momirovic G. (2009)., Stability of yield and yield components in maize hybrids., Genetika, 41(2), 215-224.
  13. Tan Z.X., Lal R. and Wiebe K.D. (2005)., Global Soil Nutrient Depletion and Yield Reduction., Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 26(1), 123-146.
  14. NARI (2012)., Annual Cashew Breeding Research Report for 2012/13., Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives, Tanzania, 63.
  15. Aliyu O.M., Adeigbe O.O. and Lawal O.O. (2014)., Phenotypic Stability Analysis of Yield Components in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Using Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and GGE Biplot Analyses., Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 2(4), 354-369.
  16. Anila R. and Radha T. (2003)., Studies in fruit drop in mango varieties., Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 41, 30-32.
  17. Blaikie S., O’Farrell P., Warren M., Wei X., Scott N., Sykes S. and Chacko E. (2002)., Assessment and Selection of New Cashew Hybrids., Environmentally friendly paper, Canprint, Publication number, 01/177, 21.