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Stability of yield and selected yield components of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Southern and Eastern Tanzania

Author Affiliations

  • 1Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Cashew Research Programme, P.O. Box 509 Mtwara, Tanzania
  • 2Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, P. O. Box 3005 Morogoro, Tanzania
  • 3Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, P. O. Box 3005 Morogoro, Tanzania
  • 4Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Cashew Research Programme, P.O. Box 509 Mtwara, Tanzania

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 5, Issue (9), Pages 6-12, September,8 (2017)

Abstract

Studies were undertaken to evaluate G x E interaction and determine stability of elite cashew hybrids and thereby identify widely and/or specifically adapted hybrids in the Southern and Eastern Tanzania. Results showed significant hybrid x locations interaction for all variables indicating differential genotypic responses of yield and yield components across the tested environments. High yielding genotypes with broad adaptation and some with specific adaptation were identified. Of these H3, H5, H6, H15, H16, H22, H23, H24, H26, H27 and H29 were adapted to the varying environments. In the contrary, high yielding unstable hybrids H2, H4, H7, H18, H19, H25 and H30 were more suitable for Nachingwea site while H1, H8, H10, H11, H13 and H17 were more favourable for Chambezi site. Hybrids H22, H5 and H24 were identified as the best in stability and yield with good agronomic attributes, and tolerance to cashew leaf and nut blight disease. Among the least stable hybrids in yield, H4, H8, H17, H11, H18 and H30 registered high yields with good agronomic traits. H28, H12 and H9 appeared to be stable but recorded low yields. Therefore, crosses between these two groups will likely combine stability and yield so as to have stable cashew hybrids with high yield. Chambezi site with higher cashew leaf and nut blight disease due to more humid and warmer conditions had fewer productive flowers, higher individual kernel weights, fewer nuts per tree but lower total yields.

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