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Factors Influencing the Adoption of Large Cardamom-based Agro-forestry System in the Eastern Hills of Nepal

Author Affiliations

  • 1Ministry of Population and Environment, Singh Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 2Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority, Tangal, Kathmandu, Nepal

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 4, Issue (10), Pages 1-10, October,8 (2016)


The cardamom-based agroforestry is a traditional production system in the hills and mountains of eastern Nepal. Such system is believed to be ecologically sustainable, socially acceptable and economically viable. Using the agricultural census data of 2011/12, this paper aims to identify the factors influencing the adoption of cardamom-based agroforestry system in the eastern hills of Nepal. Being the censored type sample population, Tobit model has been used. On an average, the households experienced no food shortage for about 9 months, the cultivated land per household was 0.88 hectare and around 77 percent of the total land was under upland category. The results showed that the proportion of the area under upland, age and education level of the household head, the male headed household and distance to road heads and markets were significant variables affecting the adoption of this type of agroforestry system. Farmers might have utilized the upland area for this agroforestry system probably perceiving the economic, social and environmental benefits. For further increasing its adoption so as to get optimal benefits, there is a need to create awareness among the households through trainings, extension and other educational programs. Similarly, the households should be supported in both pre-production and post-harvest related activities. In addition, the constraints on adoption of female headed households should be identified and special programs need to be implemented for increasing the level of adoption. In order to improve the access, the investment should be increased for developing physical infrastructures such as roads and markets.


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